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Many hundred
years ago school was not mandatory. Children were taught at home by their
parents. Only if the child came from a wealthy family their parents will hire a
tutor  for their child. Public
schools  came to existence in the
1930s.  Then in 1988, Albert Shanker had
a vision of a new type of
school.  After that then in 1991
Minnesota passed the first charter school law, and opened its first school in
1992.  This is how charter schools came
to exist.  Throughout this paper it is
going to explore  the history of public
and charter school, the differences between public and charter school, the
problems between public and charter schools. Also what is a solution that could be developed 
for the social injustice between public and charter schools. Also, in
this paper is going to applied  John
Dewey theories to hope us understand the social issue between Public and
Charter school and  apply a Christian
perspective about the education system.

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Public schools did
not exist hundreds of years ago until Puritans point out that there was a need
for education.  This group of people
started to establish schools with the purpose to teach children how to read and
write. But something that was very important for the Puritans was their core
values so through their teaching in schools they reinforced their core values.
When the American Revolution  occurred in
1776, Thomas Jefferson decided that this independent nation needed an
educational system. In order to fund public schools it would be funded by the
tax dollars this was his idea. But no one agreed to his ideas. Until 1852
Massachusetts passed the first compulsory school laws. Then the following year
New York followed. By 1918, all children in America were required to go to elementary
school.  This was not something optional.
 Into the the late 1930s John Dewey
required education for all students until the age of 18. Before Dewey there was
no real standardization across the states.  A few years after then the congress passed a
law No Child Left Behind Act which it was signed by president George W . Bush.  This is a federal law that provides extra
educational assistance for children who are from poverty.  The reason for this law was to insure that
students are provided with the resources to reach their grade level in reading
and math.

Albert Shanker who
is the president of American Federation for teachers in 1988 he came up with
the idea of a new type of public school.  He did it with the purpose where teachers will
have more freedom to serve and teach their students than the traditional
classroom environment.  Then in 1991
Minnesota passed the first charter school law. This occurred when Minnesota “faced
several critical challenges, including huge gaps in achievement levels and
graduation rates among different demographic groups in an increasingly diverse
school-age population”(   3                 ) . They were able to open the
first charter school in 1992 which was called the Bluffview Montessori School.
Then in 1994 Bill Clinton  supported
charter schools by  the end of his term the
president the created 2,000 more charter schools. “The amendment provided
grants to states for planning, evaluating, and expanding charter schools and
also encouraged states to increase state financial support to charters”
(Levine, 2014).  Not only did Bill
Clinton encouraged the charter schools as well Eva Moskowitz in 2016  open her first charter school.  Today  she
is the CEO of Success Academy Charter who developed 41  charter schools  in the city of New York.  The charter schools  Moskowitz opened are known for their rigorous
instruction and stellar test results. This is how  charter school schools came to exist in the
United States.            


Statement of Purpose 

Public and Charter schools are schools of free
tuition. One of the  differences between
them is the funding. The public schools receives their funding from the  from the state, property taxes and federal
government.  Public school is open to all
children. No child can be rejected from a public school. Every child is
accepted and welcomed to receive an education at no cost.  Also, in public schools “decision making
occurs through the election of state and congressional representatives, as well
as the various publicly accountable agencies designated to carry out specific
school functions”    (           2          )                .  The teachers in public school must be
certified by the State Board of Education in order for them to be allow to
teach in a public school. Not only that but they mostly follow the standards
and guidelines established by the State Board of Education. This is a benefit
that public schools have because this enusres that  teachers are fully  equipped to be able to teach children. Also
this gives parents security that their children are learning in school what is
required according to their grade level and age because this school and
teachers have standards they must follow. 
Public schools are very diverse and allows children to interact and
learn from one another.  Also public
schools only offer normal curriculum for example like reading, math , science ,
history  etc.


On the other hand charter schools are different than
public schools. The differences are that charter schools are chosen by families
who want their child to attend a charter school instead of a public school.  In order to establish a charter school it
needs to be authorized from school, district , state and city.  Charter schools get funded from multiple
places, one of them is  the state and
district but they funds depend on the enrollment of students in the school
because of this they receive less funds from the public then a public schools
will.   Also it is funded by a group of
parents, non-profit groups, corporations, single educators with the special
focuses like art or science.  Charter
school has the ability to operate independently outside the local district
school this allows for charter schools to have more freedom in making decisions
for example how they spend and service students. But they still have to meet
certain standards. The charter schools are “reviewed periodically by the entity
that granted it and can be revoked if guidelines on curriculum and management
are not followed or if the accountability standards are not met “(                             ). Charter schools
may focus on specific skills and subjects like math or science.  Which this gives an opportunity the students
in charter schools a different environment of learning.

                                           Literature Review

Some of the problems between public and charter
schools is that charter schools have longer days at school and school year .
Which this is one of the reason that student in charter school  attended to have better performance in  standardised test  (Barr,2006). 
As well not everyone is accepted to attend  a charter school. This school have a lottery
system and that is how children are selected because they only have certain
amount of seats which creates an injustice.  Also this allow parents to take their children
out of ineffective public schools.  This
affects public schools because their number of enrollment of student is
dropping.  In order for children to be
eligible for the lottery system he or she needs to be a New York City student.  Also the charter school needs to have open seat.  After that there are three steps the  guardian need to do.  First fill out a form with child name, grade
level and contact information. Second 
the lottery procedure must follow school’s approved admissions policy.  Third the student who were elected in the
lottery may choose to enroll in the school or deny the offer and the students
that were not selected go in a randomly waiting list (                        ).  Furthermore in “2013-14 school  year an estimated  69,000 
students applied for about 18,600 open seats in NYC charter schools,
creating  an estimated citywide waiting
list first of 50,400 students”(                
      ).    A disadvantage within charter schools is
that they have a lack of diversity.”  Proponents have presented them as a solution
to the racism and poor quality of education in our public schools. They claim
that charters promise access, equity, excellence, and accountability; that they
will empower parents with choice and a voice in their children’s education; and
that they will close the “achievement gap” between white students and students
of color”. ( Russom,2017).                         This does not allow
student to interact with other cultures or learn from different culture. Also
it will limit this student from resources. There is a great percentage of
African American students that attend charter schools (   Prothero, A. (2016). Another problem in  charter school is that this teacher are
working longer hours and more days in a school year. This teacher could get
burned out not only that but also stress out because of the higher standards
they are held too.  Their slavery is
lower than public schools teachers. According to by this researcher Gonzalez he
stated faculties at charter schools are paid nearly 50 percent less than
faculty at home district schools. Also 
the salary of teachers in a public school it’s in the range of 53,300
where the teachers salary  in charter
school are in the range of 44,500.  This
is one of the reason why teachers in charter school do not last so long work in
as a teacher would in a traditional school.  
Charter schools usually do not provide transportation.  This will make it hard for parents that work
and are not able to drop their child at school. But in the other hand parents
do not have to worry about that because public school provide public
transportation services.  Another con
with in charter school is that in some smaller charter school they do not offer
other extracurricular activities or sport. Also another con of charter school
is that charter schools are not as stable as traditional schools due to the
reason that charter school operate through contract and they could have the
possibility of being shut down in the school year which can have serious
negative repercussions on the educational and social development of the
student.  A social issue that they may
have in charter schools is between public and charter  schools is that charter schools student have
the opportunity to learn in a smaller class environment which allow students to
get that one on one attention with their teacher.  Also it will allow the teacher to get to know
their students.  As well wealthy people
who  donate money to charter schools.  According to this article by  Singer Alan 
it stated that Wall Street is so hot on raising money for charter
schools. On Monday night, April 28, 2014, hundreds of Wall Streeters gathered
at Cipriani in Midtown Manhattan to raise funds for Success Academy Charter
Schools. The gala raised at
least $7.75 million for Success Academy.  
As well in charter school they offer alternative learning methods like
teaching  lesson that use visual or more
hands approaches. Which this is a good alternative of a learning environment
for children in school, which students in public schools may not have this

   Theoretical Framework

     John Dewey’s
theory of education believed that children learn better through active
participation.  He believed in that the
progressive education is essentially a view of education that emphasizes the
need of learning by doing. He believed that human beings learn through a hands
on approach because the fact that reality must be experienced. Also student
must interact with their environment in order to  adapt and learn.  Also believed that “the growth of democracy”
is the result of the progress of civilization, which includes “the development
of the experimental method in the sciences, evolutionary ideas in the
biological sciences, and the industrial reorganization,” but that it cannot be
fully realized unless it is followed by the concurrent developments in
education (  Zocler,2016). John  Dewey theory is what charter schools have
been applying to their school. This may be one of the reasons why students have
better preferences in charter school than in a traditional school.

Social Action Plan

A social action plan that could be applied to
improve the students learning experiences .One of them is diversity this will compile a school resources manual to provide families in need
information to enhance their child’s learning experience.  Teachers
and leaders should improve their academic standards by developing  new
curriculum, have student developing
high level of responsibility and understanding of the diverse society they live
in which this will hope them be more success in their futures jobs. Also contract organizations that donates school supplies, have
School social workers, guidance counselors and parent coordinators and tutorial
programs. This will allow student to 
develop a better skills, knowledge of understanding . Also they will be
able to connected with directly with the community and be able to reflect on
and assimilate learning. Another thing that could be done is allow teacher or
stuff developed club, activities that tapped into the interests of the student
. This will benefit   the student to be
more involved and engaged to different things . Training for teachers should be
a requestment that they need to have because this will help teachers to feel
more supported,more equipped and ready to applied with their students. This
action plan will help to improve student preferences of academically and their
interested towards academics.



Children are
the future of tomorrow. They are the next generation professionals teachers,
doctors, lawyers etc. This is the reason when it comes to education students
should best education environment and resources. Before students are provided
with resources so they could have a better education environment it says in
proverbs 31-8-9 “speaking up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the
rights of all who are destitutes. Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights
of the poor and needy”. This children need teachers and their parents to speak
for them requested what the child may needs to improve their education
understanding. As well this will allow to better prepare the students for
tomorrow. In proverbs 22:6 it says train up a child in the way the should; even
when the is old the will not depart from it. If teachers,parents and leaders
well prepared children they will be ready for the future and be able to apply
what they learned to the next generation. Which this will improved the drop out
of school and it will increase the graduation rate.  Teachers,parents and learners needs to start
speaking up so some of this social issue in the education system could be fix
and not go on into the next generation 
with the same problem. They should fix it now so the next generation do
not have to face the social justice with school and they could receive the
right resources and being  in an
environment that will be about to learn and engaged with other cultures. This
will better equipped the students for their futures.




In conclusion, we are able to see the history of
education, how it comes into existence, how people invested to the education
system and brought up ideas for the education system. Also, we are able to see
some of the social issues that happen between public and charter schools. As
well the pros and cons between them.   But
in this paper are able to see that public schools are better then charter
schools because they are more stable, teachers get better pay and they need to
be certificate in order for them to teache etc. Furthermore, what was a solution
to fix this issue that public and charter schools are facing.  By improving the education social injustice
it will give more positives result towards student preferences in schools. It
will give opportunity to others as well. 
Also a biblical perspective of how teachers, parents and leaders need to
speak up for their children and train them so they could be in future teachers
parents and leaders where they will not have to face social justice and their
future children as well.























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