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Since the year 1980 when
the internet was first implemented sharing of information has one of its major
goals. After the introduction of cloud computing in the year 2006 the cloud not
only provided a basis for information sharing but it also provided a platform
for information processing. The purpose of this report is to observe
Cloud computing has
contributed in the development of society. The research paper
describes the
relation between cloud and cloud computing and how it is being used. For conducting the research, a descriptive and case study method was used. The structure of the report is as follows: the first section provides a definition of
cloud and cloud computing, difference between cloud computing and grid computing. The second and third sections define what the game AI field is and give
history. The second chapter focusses on the contribution of cloud
computing and is divided into
two sections; the first one focuses on the economic contribution and the second discussing
a new model of society because of cloud computing.  The third
section focuses on the challenges
to cloud computing. The forth shows the result of the case study. Because Cloud
computing is the
largest field in one of
most notable branches of computer science
and internet, it is an area worthy
of research for those that seek to understand what cloud computing is and how it can benefit the society.

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1    Cloud And Cloud



1.1 Cloud Definition



The Cloud can be
defined as a collection of various hardware devices and networks that enable
computing as a service. Judith Hurwitz discusses about the four types of clouds
in the books, they are public, private, community and hybrid clouds. Public
Clouds are available to the public or a group of organizations for example a
newspaper portal, private clouds are accessible to only the organization that owns
it for example a cloud owned by a hospital. A community cloud is owned by a
group of organizations but available to specific part of the community for
example clouds owned by banks. A Hybrid is a combination of public and private
clouds where the organizations decides the level of access given to users. The
services that these clouds provide are known as cloud computing 1.


 1.2 Cloud Computing Definition


Cloud Computing can
also be defined as the next step in the evolution of the internet. It enables
the users to compute, store or simply access their data that is stored on some
random servers across the globe with the help of internet. The author Vladimir
also suggests that clouds are often preferred over traditional business
setups where all the equipment must be purchased and in case of a business
failure the owner faces a huge loss, here the cloud plays a major role as it is
an elastic approach where the users can modify and manage their business needs
at an affordable price. The three types of cloud computing services are
Software as a Service(SaaS), Platform as a Service(PaaS) and Infrastructure as
a service(IaaS). The (IaaS) is the lowest layer, it represents the system
elements like processing, network, storage elements, these can be servers, storage
equipment, switches, routers and other systems that handle workloads from
network. (PaaS) is the middle layer, it includes more advanced services, for
example, to develop, test, deploy, host and maintain software. For example, Google App Engine, Microsoft Azure, IBM Smart
Cloud, Amazon EC2 and can be PaaS service providers. The top
layer will delivery direct service to end users by on-demand. A simple example
can be Gmail, it is a SaaS where Google is the provider and we are
consumers 2.

1.3 Cloud Computing vs Grid Computing

    Grid Computing is when an organization owns
its data centers and servers and has total control over its resources, such
type of computing is preferred by organizations that need computing power for
specific purposes. Traditionally all the organizations used Grid Computing but
after the introduction of cloud computing in 2006 there has been a shift of
preference between the two. Grid computing needs a specific software to carry
out tasks. It is a very secure and fast approach, but can be costly to set up. On
the other hand, Cloud computing is less secure and slower than Grid computing
but is a much cheaper approach, since the organization can avail a specific
service and have the ability modify these services according to their needs 3.


Contributions to the society


2.1 Economic Contribution



computing has contributed majorly to business community. It enables
organizations to set up a virtual office and give the flexibility of connecting
businesses anywhere, any time. Moving to cloud computing may reduce the cost of
managing and maintaining IT systems. Rather than purchasing expensive systems
and equipment, one can reduce the costs by using the resources of the cloud
computing service provider. This provides stability as the organization can
modify their cloud at any time by contacting the service provider and focus
more towards the business strategies rather than worrying about their data. It
also provides business continuity as everything is saved on the cloud, in case
of a disaster in the company’s headquarters the business can easily be restored
and continued. Cloud computing also provides several services to the
organization that they can use for a small fee. Services like online database,
machine learning and data analysis are very vital for businesses, these
services if an organization chooses to setup individually would cost a lot as
compared to the fee they need to pay to the cloud providers. Many organizations
use third-party business process providers for things such as payment services
like PayPal. The importance of third-party providers continues to expand as
more services are made available in the cloud. In some situations, there is a shift
of responsibility from the IT department to the Business Department. For
example, if an organization hires 20 new employees and their email is managed
in the cloud, the business department needs to budget for 20 more users, in
this case the IT department is not responsible to support the additional users.
But now it’s the responsibility of the cloud services provider. However, the IT
departments need to carefully monitor the effectiveness of the cloud
environment to support the enterprise. Businesses can use the data available on
the cloud and create better strategies to dominate the market. The businesses
can easily be available in a country without having an actual store in that
region, by using cloud services many opportunities are available 1. Oracle is one of the companies that fear
the domination of Cloud Computing. Oracle
is well known for providing management software systems to organizations, but
with introduction of management services of the cloud by companies like Google and Microsoft has not only dazzled Oracles
business but in addition the two companies also provide several computing
services which Oracle lacks. This
fear of domination and a huge competition has resulted in cheaper cloud
services and provides a huge advantage for businesses. Cloud computing has also
played a major role in discovery of new types of business models and helped
startups to compete in the market 3 .


Smart and Green Society


We currently
live in a society where almost everything is interconnected over the internet, ranging
from personal detail, bank detail, medical details, traffic performance to
every small detail is available on the internet.  Borgia presented a similar idea of a smart
grid a smart Grid in his book. There the author justifies the impact of cloud
computing on the environment. according to the idea everything is easily
controllable from a single platform which can lead to decrease in the number of
servers and data centers, for example imagine 5 data centers for 5 different
purposes operating individually and occupying land and resources, on the other
hand if everything is stored on the cloud and only one huge data center is
needed to be maintained.  All the
hospitals can share patients reports, all banks can share a customer’s details.
The authorities can monitor suspicious personnel through one channel. Cloud
Computing has also enabled services like package tracking and online stores. With
Google, Samsung and Amazon   making more and more smart products keeping
track of things has become drastically easy. For example, you forgot to switch
off air conditioner(AC) and left your home for a weeks’ vacation, with
advancement in technology the AC can communicate with your phone and you can
remotely off the AC of ask a friend to do so. Such services are made possible
due to cloud computing and hence save electricity from getting wasted.   Online storage and computing capabilities
have also helped majorly in the development of society, now instead of buying
extra hard drives users can easily store their files on the cloud. Computing
has also majorly changed websites like Wolframalpha
and symbolab have made it easier
for students to calculate complex mathematical solutions. Online interactive
website like tutorialspoint
and w3school also help the students
to easily learn new things at home 3. Cloud computing has also lead to
discovery of new types of currencies known as crypto currencies, such
currencies are not regulated by any banks and governments and there fore
regulated by the common people which leads to the peoples trust in such
currencies, an example of such currency is bitcoin
which was introduced in year 2009 and has gained popularity ever since.
Such a currency can help elimination of coins , paper notes and plastic based
cards and help towards a greened environment.


3 Challenges to overcome

cloud computing has contributed to the society in a several ways, there is
still a long way ahead.  Cloud computing
is surely cheaper but still its not the perfect solution.  Slow computing speed is one of the main
issues but eventually it can be easily overcome with improvement in technology
and faster algorithms 1. Internet dependency is also one of the major issues,
according to the (ICANN), The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and
Numbers around 50 % of the world still didn’t have access to internet in 2016.
Since cloud computing heavily relies on the internet, it is very important to
solve this issue.  


Research and findings

A survey was conducted dedicated to this research.
The main objectives of the research were to study the awareness of people
towards cloud and cloud computing. According to the survey 60% of the
respondents had some basic knowledge of cloud computing and only 20 % had a
better understanding of cloud computing. 80% of the users occasionally used
Ecommerce services while the rest never used it. 50% were using eLearning
services on regular basis while others used them daily or occasionally. Only
50% of the users used online storage services on regular basis while the others
didn’t. everyone liked the feature of cloud as an online storage medium and
only 60% liked the idea of having their data accessibly from any part of the
world while others didn’t see it as a feature.100% of the respondents agreed
that cloud computing adds value to their education. 60% of the people think that
cloud is safe for backup and storage purpose while only 10% disagreed and the
rest had no idea about it. Only 30% of the people think cloud computing is a
good approach for startups while 10% says it’s a risky move, but a majority 60%
believe choosing cloud computing depends on the type of business. 60% of the
people think that cloud computing has helped in the development of society
while only 10% disagreed. 30 % don’t use cloud services due to security
concerns,50 % due to internet dependency and 30% due to slow performance were
not using cloud services.




Cloud computing is often
seen as an innovative technology, it has helped develop societies and lead to
the discovery of new models of business. The cloud could be the next evolution
in the history of computing, following in the footsteps of mainframes,
minicomputers, PCs, servers, smart phones, and so on, and radically changing
the way enterprises manage IT. Some users still see security as an issue, in
theory yes clouds are more prone to cyber attacks and loss of data, eventually
this has also happened with many users, but the cloud providers were able to
recover their data for them and in some cases also help catch the culprits.   

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