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Ireland also have
something called Private Health Insurance that operates on a ‘community rated’
basis which means that insurers must charge the same premium for a particular
level of cover regardless of age, gender or health status. They cannot base
their insurance policies on risk. Irish health insurance legislation also
provides for ‘open enrolment’ which means that insurance companies must make
insurance cover available to people aged under 65 years of age regardless of whether
or not they were insured before. The law in Ireland also provides for ‘life
cover’ which means that once you are registered for health insurance cover you
cannot be told by the company that they are no longer willing to insure you,
except in very exceptional circumstances. The taking out of private health
insurance in Ireland is essentially a voluntary decision on the part of the
individual (A European like any other, 2004).

          Hospitals now are controlled by the
National Hospitals Office (NHO). There are ten hospital networks based on the
old regional health board structure. Then, there are more than thirty local
health offices, one of each county that spread out the entire Northern Ireland.
The local health offices (LHO) report to Primary, Community and Continuing Care
(PCCC), a directorate of the HSE. Regional Health Service Excusive offices
interact with national HSE headquarters and also the NHO, LHO, PCCC and the
local regional hospital network (A European country like any other, 2004).

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(Greer. 2008).

         In Loh, Ghorab, Clarke, Conroy, & Barlow, (2013) medical
training takes place at a number of universities across the country. Measures
were announced in 2006 to reform medical education and training from
undergraduate level through to postgraduate specialist training. These involve
the doubling of the number of medical places for Irish and EU students over a
4-year period, as well as the introduction of a new graduate entry program for
medicine from 2007. The curriculum and clinical training will also be restructured.

          The overwhelming problems with the
Irish health care system are the waiting lists and emergency rooms. During the
winter flu seasons, there are nearly weekly stories of overcrowded emergency facilities
with patients lying on gurney in the halls for periods up to three days. The
underlying problem is lack of beds and there’s been a multi-pronged initiative
to both add more beds to the system and to free up existing beds which are
being used by older patients because of a lack of old age homes and local care
facilities. Sounds simple, but the problem remains unsolved after decades of
supposed priority. As a result, many Irish people opt for a private health
insurance and choose to get treatments from private hospitals or clinics.

          According to the Department of Health
and Children in 2004, the procession of nursing constitutes the largest
professional group of Health care providers in Ireland, and also in the United
States, as such, significantly influences therapeutic quality and cost
effectiveness of the health services. The development of nursing scientific
knowledge, which is needed to guide these services, requires systematic
targeting of nursing research endeavors and resources. There are many clinical
phenomena, as well as managerial and educational issues of interest to nurses

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