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Filariases is an infectious and parasitic disease caused by roundworms. The
disease is caused by worms which look like threads and they are based in the
lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes of the body. Lymphatic Filariases plays a big
part in the infection fighting the immune system. Lymphatic filariasis causes
elephantiasis which is skin or the tissue thickening of the limbs. This is when
it develops into chronic conditions it leads to lymphoedema (tissue swelling).


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condition known as right ventricular heart failure is when the muscle of the
right ventricle is not pumping as efficiently. There are many causes of this
condition and these are things such as high blood pressure in the lungs and
heart valve disease. This results in oedema because when the right ventricle is
not pumping enough blood the blood backs up into the bodies veins.

ventricular heart failure

is also known as edematous malnutrition. This condition is a nutritional
disorder which is normally found in countries that experience famine and a lack
of food or have a limited supply of food. Kwashiorkor is a form of malnutrition
which is caused by a lack of protein in one’s diet. This condition results in
oedema because of the large lack of protein. This therefore causes an osmotic
imbalance in the gastro intestinal system causing an oedema.


Oedema is
the accumulation of fluid in tissues. The following conditions result in oedema
and these are:

Describe and explain some causes of oedema

different pressures are involved in the formation and reabsorption of tissue
fluid. Tissue fluid is the fluid that surrounds the cells in tissues and it is
formed by blood and the high hydrostatic pressure of it. The substances that it
is make up blood plasma are oxygen, water and nutrients. Cells take oxygen and
nutrients in from tissue fluid and they release metabolic waste into it. In a
capillary bed substances move out of the capillaries into the tissue fluid by
pressure filtration. Tissue fluid is formed from blood and the high hydrostatic
pressure of it. This occurs at the arteriole end of the capillary that pushes
fluid out of the blood. The hydrostatic pressure inside the capillaries is much
greater than the hydrostatic pressure in the tissue fluid. The difference is
that hydrostatic pressure forces fluid out of the capillaries into the space
around the cell which consequently form tissue fluid. The fluid then leaves and
the hydrostatic pressure reduces in the capillaries (The hydrostatic pressure
is much lower at the end of the capillary bed). 
Another form of pressure is called the oncotic pressure which is generated
by plasma proteins which is present in the capillaries.  which decrease the water potential.  At the venule end of the capillary, the water
potential in the capillaries is lower than the water potential in the tissue
because of the fluid loss from the capillaries. This means some water re-enters
the capillaries from the tissue fluid by the function osmosis.

The veins
take blood back from the lungs to the heart and this blood is deoxygenated and
under low pressure. The veins have wider lumen than the equivalent arteries
with not a lot of elastic or muscle tissue. Veins also contain valves to stop
the blood flowing backwards. Blood flow through the veins is helped by the
contraction of body muscles surrounding them.

Capillaries connect to the venules which have very thin walls that contain some
muscle cells. Venules join together to form veins. The capillaries have a type
of gas exchange and a delivery of nutrients at the tissues happens. The capillaries
carry both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The blood is under high and low

arterioles are the smaller part of the arteries. The difference between the
arteries and arterioles is that the arterioles have much smaller and thinner
walls than the arteries. They also control the blood distribution by changing
the diameter of the lumen making it either decreasing or increasing the size.  Just like the arteries, arterioles have a
layer of very smooth muscle but in consequence to that they have less elastic
tissue. The smoothness of the muscle allows arterioles to contract, therefore controlling
the amount of blood flowing to the tissues. Arterioles also branch into the
capillaries which is the smallest of the blood vessels. Substances such as
glucose and oxygen are exchanged and interchange between cells and capillaries.

There are
five major blood vessels in the body and these are the: arteries, arterioles,
capillaries, venules and veins. The Arteries are part of the circulatory system
and carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. Arteries
have walls which are thick and muscular and they also have elastic tissue. The
function of this elastic tissue is to stretch and to recoil as the heart is
beating. This helps maintain the flow of high blood pressure. The inner lining
of the artery is called the folded endothelium which allows the artery to
expand and also maintains the high blood pressure. The pulmonary arteries carry
deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.

Blood vessels and their functions






















Portal Vein








Human Circulatory system


are cells that are not fully developed cells but are fragments of them. They
make up around 2% of blood and aid of blood clotting. In addition, platelets
stop blood loss from damaged vessels which contributes to the aiding of blood
clotting. It helps the blood clotting process by gathering at the site of the
injury (this can be the cut in the heart). It then sticks to the lining of the
injured vessel which therefore forms a platform of which blood coagulation can

White blood
cells protect the body from infection and foreign attackers that can affect the
body. There are fewer white blood cells than red blood cells in the body. The
most common white blood cell is neutrophil which is also known as the
“immediate response”. Each neutrophil lives less than a day in the body and
because of this the bone marrow must continually make neutrophil. This is to
protect the body against infection. The other type of white blood cell is
lymphocyte. There are two types of lymphocyte, one of which is called the T
lymphocyte. The T lymphocyte helps regulate the function of other immune cells
and directly attack cells which are infected. B lymphocyte makes antibodies and
these are proteins that specifically target bacteria, viruses and other foreign

Red blood
cells (also known as Erythrocyte) contain tissue fluid.  These are the most common in the blood. Red
blood cells are shaped as a biconcave disc because of the flatness in the
middle of it. This is the production of red blood cells which is controlled by erythropoietin,
a hormone that is produced predominantly by kidneys. Unlike all other cells red
blood cells do not have a nucleus or organelles and can change shape very
easily. Because of this flexibility, it helps them to fit through various blood
vessels in the body. By having no organelles or nucleus it maximises the space
for the protein haemoglobin therefore more oxygen can be transported to the
rest of the body.

Blood also
consists of 3 other main components which are the red blood cells, white blood
cells and platelets.

such as CO2 AND 02

products such as urea

which are glucose and amino acids



 Plasma is 92% water and contains the following:

Blood is a
specialized tissue consisting of cells suspended in a watery substance called
plasma. Blood has many different roles in the body such as transporting oxygen
and nutrients to the lungs and tissues inside the body. Another role that blood
has in the body is to defend against bacteria, which enables the body not to
get ill or sick which can make the body weaker. Because of this the blood
produces antibodies that will fight against infection, viruses and other
substances that the body is not familiar with.  Blood also regulates blood temperature.
Thermoregulation keeps the body’s temperature under control. Lastly, blood
maintains Ph body fluids and also brings waste products to the kidney and
liver. This filters the blood and cleans it.

What are the components of blood and what are
certain blood vessels and their structure

assignment will consist of two parts, Part A and Part B. Part A will first
describe the components of blood and in addition it will also be related to the
structure of a red blood cell to its role in transport. Major blood vessels
will also be labelled on a diagram of the human circulatory system and it will
distinguish the difference between the systematic and pulmonary circulation.
Lastly in Part A, I will relate the structure of blood vessels to their
functions. Part B will describe the pressure involved in the formation and
reabsorption of tissue fluid. I will lastly describe and explain causes of oedema.

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