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individuals question themselves about certain habits they have, asking where
did this come from, or how did they learn this. Some individuals do not want to
be like their parents but as they get older they see resemblance of things
their parents did and they are now doing. Being a parent is much harder then it
seems, it is of the most challenging and difficult responsibilities a person
can face (Siegel & Hartzell, 2014). The reason being that there is a
variety of ways to be a parent and can lead people to wonder which style may be
the best for their child.

often find it overwhelming trying to meet their children’s needs. There is a
limited amount of time, resources, and patience. Meeting all their needs can
seem like an impossible task (Yazdani
& Daryei, 2016). 
Sometimes, a traumatic past can taunt the parent because they are afraid
of failing, which influences the involvement of an individual with their child,
in spite of the starting point (Siegel & Hartzell, 2014). Due to this fear
it can affect the child and how they will grow up which is why it is important
to take into consideration how the child is raised.

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styles differ from individual to individual. The way a family is structured is
how parenting styles come into play (Raboteg-Saric, & Sakic, 2014). Child
rearing highlights parental activities and responses towards their child which
includes views they convey, desires they have and demonstrate qualities and
convictions on how parents aid, take care of the child and how they discipline
the child (Sharma & Padley, 2015).  People
learn how to parent from their own specific relationships with their own parents,
society and helpful experiences (Raboteg-Saric, & Sakic, 2014).

way a parent feels towards their child resembles the state of understanding in
which the child is to shape into and learns to build strong relationships, which
can then lead to an individual’s self-esteem (Yan, Zhang & Cui, 2016). Self-
pride is how a person views himself or herself, overall self-evaluation to the
world and how commendable the individual thinks they are to others (Yousaf, 2015). Self-esteem influences one’s
trust in others, one’s relationships, and work. For instance if a person has a
low self-esteem their work ethic may not be as positive as those who are
confident, which in turn can affect their chance of getting a promotion,
socializing and advancing in partnerships within the work place. Positive self-pride
gives an individual the quality and adaptability to acknowledge responsibility
of their lives, to be able to pick up from short comings without disappointment
and live up to one’s full potential  (Yousaf, 2015).

There are many components in developing a child’s self-image,
attitude, ability, and attributes being some, but one of the ones that are
heavily weighed upon would be the way a parent approaches and treats a child (Yazdani & Daryei, 2016). Parents should
consider how important their role is in their
child’s life. In many parent and child relationships, communication is crucial
because it helps the child understand how she or he is viewed in the eyes of
the authority figure. (Yazdani
& Daryei, 2016).  

According to John Bowlby (1958) attachment
theory, is a strong emotional and physical bond between child and primary
caregiver. This forms how a child reacts to many situations, ranging from an
emotional response to external stimuli (as cited in Bifulco & Thomas, 2013). Bonding with parents, is the basic behavioral
strategies of humans from birth (Bifulco & Thomas, 2013). Self-regard is critical due to its impact in
a healthy human development. Self-esteem is categorized as one of the essential
human inspirations (Moudgil & Moudgil, 2017). All of the statements above
just prove why the child to parent relationship is so detrimental.

Theorist Abraham Maslow introduced
the idea of the hierarchy of needs and how it impacts self-esteem. Such as physical
requirements, nutrient and unwinding, prosperity needs, next social needs,
which is love cherish from others taken after by respect needs, impression of
individual worth and achievements (Yousaf, 2015).
Respect toward oneself exists in
everyone to a certain extent, even if is not fully determined yet because it
changes as people get older. For those who have created a solid center of
self-esteem, the changes will be brief as life circumstances happen (Hunter, Barber & Stolz,

Children who mature with strong
self-esteem are capable of standing up for what they believe in, what is
important to them and attempt modern things (Yan, Zhang & Cui, 2016).   These are
the children who are determined in reaching their objectives and concede when
they make an error. A child with strong self-esteem expresses joy and will act
dependably. A strong self-esteem is a feeling of internal self-worth (Yan,
Zhang & Cui, 2016). Self- esteem differs between ages and genders, even
though it is known as a stable trait that may change during life, it is
constantly being worked on because of the variation of bumps in the road and
accomplishments. This allows the child to learn and grow.  

the 1970’s researcher Diana Baumrind examined different kinds of parenting
styles through observation and discussions such as authoritarian,
authoritative, permissive (as cited in Hunter, Barber & Stolz, 2014),which
was later modified by Maccoby and Martin (1983); to add uninvolved. 
Maccoby and Martin (1983) revised permissive parents and split it into
two there is much similarity but still different (as cited in Yazdani & Daryei, 2016). 

 Authoritarian parenting style is shown as a grey
style of parenting, where rules must be followed without question or there will
be disciplining. These parents tend to be severe and controlling, while not treating
their child as equivalents. (Raboteg-Saric, & Sakic, 2014). This parent
provides a very structured environment around the child. There is no room for
flexibility; children are expected to follow what the parent demands, without
any sort of discussion (Hunter,
Barber & Stolz, 2014). Although this style of parenting can seem to be
beneficial since one would believe that it would provide the child with
structure this type of parenting has quite the opposite effect. Being that the
parent is severely controlling the child has no room to learn how to be
creative, will most likely always be a follower, have a difficult time making
decisions, and can gain a fear a failure mindset (Betts, Trueman, Chiverton,
Stanbridge, & Stephens, J. 2013). In the long run all of those factors will
negatively effect the child not only in relationships but in work as well.

parenting style also has rules that must be followed, but these parents are more
open-minded and see both sides. Authoritative parents tend to be more communicative
and supportive with their children with not much discipline (Raboteg-Saric,
& Sakic, 2014). Children raised by these parents can talk about issues
regarding social and physical changes in their lives. These parents are assertive,
but are not intrusive or restrictive (Sharma
& Pandey, 2015).

Opposite of authoritarian, authoritative parenting are
actually quite beneficial. Parents who use this style of parenting are more
likely to not only have a better relationship with the child but the child is
more likely to succeed (Awasthi, 2017).
 Due to the communication between
the child and adult it allows them to set realistic goals with a reward.
Granted some of the goals maybe be a little tough such as obtaining an “A” on
every paper or exam but the parent only wants what is best and will understand
if the child does not feel good or slips up once or twice. Children who receive
this style of parenting are more likely to socialize, and become successful in
both relationships and work (Awasthi,

parenting style tends to act more responsively and demand less from their
child; thusly they do not normally discipline their child as frequently. They
are additionally informative and sustaining (Raboteg-Saric, & Sakic, 2014).
 This style of parenting involves
tenderness but lack of participation. Parents ae very loving but lack
structure, guidelines and rules. Instead of lingering over what their children
do, children often feel entitled to make decisions they are not capable of
making yet; resulting in children behaving impulsively (Moudgil & Moudgil, 2017).  As stated above this style of parenting is
beneficial because it demands less from the child but can also be harmful for
the same reason. It is a beneficial thing that the parent pays attention to the
child but not providing the proper discipline when necessary can cause the
child to become bossy and demanding. The child may rely too much on others
providing for them instead of taking action for themselves. Manipulation is
another possible trait that the child can develop from this style of parenting
and maybe even lead to a rebel of sorts because the e child sees the parent
more as a friend than a role model.

parenting is also known as neglectful parenting, a style described towards the
absence of responsiveness to the child’s necessities (Hunter, Barber & Stolz, 2014).
Uninvolved parents tend to have no requests from their child and are dismissive
to aid regularly.  As a result, the
children of uninvolved parents tend to be avoidant, may have unpleasant and
unfavorable feelings concerning their parents and others (Moudgil & Moudgil,
2017).  These children have feelings
of loneliness and start to detach themselves because they start to devalue their
own worth (Hunter, Barber & Stolz, 2014). Uninvolved parenting as stated is
neglectful which can lead to multiple issues in the child. When the child
becomes an adult they may constantly be searching for some type of acceptance
and love, which can lead them into unhealthy relationships (Awasthi, 2017). The
child can become unsocial and unable to decide things for themselves, which in
turn leads to problems in adulthood or the child may even feel suicidal (Awasthi, 2017).


The four parenting styles have one similarity and that is
control, the level of control shifts between them (Hunter,
Barber & Stolz, 2014). To the point where parents
encourage their child to discover their environment, to make errors and
beneficially gain from them, to take control over their activities and give
them a chance to take care of issues within their reach; with this kind of
support and guidance a child can positively achieve something (Sharma &
Pandey, 2015).  

Children who are under steady control from alleged helicopter
guardians are not ready to work freely and assuming this is the case, are
frequently not trusted (Sharma & Pandey, 2015). The children lives are
structured to the point that there is minimal opportunity to take full control
over their activities, along these lines a restraint of problem-solving
capacities may emerge (Betts, et al,
2013). This structures a child’s self-image and further impacts their
confidence all through life (Betts, et
al, 2013).

Sharma and Pandey (2015) conducted a research on parenting
styles and its impact on youths’ confidence mainly focused in India. There was
no significant evidence between teens who have parents with permissive style of
parenting and those whose parents adopt authoritative style of parenting.
Sharma and Pandley (2015), also consider the age gap between the parent and child,
which can bring failure to parenting because parents cannot comprehend their
teenagers, and thus clashes emerge. For instance according
to researcher Rigby, (2013),  technology
is gradually taking over the world, which allows all ages to have access to an
abundance of information that the child should not always have. Some parents
based on their style of parenting can limit what the child views but that does
not mean the child is not around it when they are with friends (Hunter, Barber &
Stolz, 2014).

the other hand some parents simply do not care what they child has access to or
does not understand technology and how it works leading to the same result as
the adult who does not care, thus the child has access to information they are
not advanced enough to know (Rigby, 2013). This can become an issue for the
relationship of not only the child and the parent but between a child and their
own self- esteem. Rigby, (2013) talks about children experiencing Internet
bullying, which is a lot more common now with technology taking over. The
bullying can lead to self-esteem issues, which thus can cause further issues in
life with relationships, work or can even lead to suicide if not ceased in time
(Rigby, 2013).

As it can be seen, parenting styles play a huge role
in child’s life which influences their self-esteem throughout their lives. Even
as they get older it either grows to be more positive or falls to be more
negative, one’s past follows them for the rest of their lives. The research
used in this paper were taking from journals in India (Moudgil & Moudgil,
2017) , China (Yan,
Zhang & Cui, 2016) and the United Kingdom (Bifulco & Thomas, 2013)  making it multi-cultural and supporting the
fact that parenting styles and self-esteem are the same all over the world just
a little tailored to meet their culture’s needs. Finding
the right balance is imperative when raising a child, between all the styles of
parenting Authoritative brings out the best results. Communication in this kind
of relationship makes for a strong bond and achievable goals (Rigby,
2013). This gives the child room to express their
views, make mistakes and grown from them. A child that is in this kind of
relationship with their parent or guardian tends to be more open and social (Betts, et al, 2013). Making for a child that is not afraid of stating their own
mind and build into a strong sense of self-esteem. Growing up these children
will do the same with their future children. Seeing the positive impact that
their parents had on them because of this style of parenting guides them to
make good choices with their own children as well (Rigby, 2013). All on all, parenting and self-esteem go hand in hand for
a child to develop into a functioning and productive adult. Perfection is
impossible; in any case, reflection upon mistakes causes adults to improve as parents
(Awasthi, 2017). When people make mistakes, they can utilize their
self-comprehension to repair cracks in other relationships with their kids.
Children do not come with manuals and parents learn as they go, being willing
to opening up and discuss issues makes for better and stronger relationships.     

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