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Mass media are the various ways in which an advertisement or news that can reach out to many people instantly either through the internet, newspaper, radio, or television. This concept is vital in today’s society and was made possible especially through the internet where it not only reaches out to many people in a short period of time, it also has a strong influence on the masses which can change the course of many decisions that public makes based on this strategy.Negative advertising  is an advertisement set forth by a presidential campaign for the sole purpose to defame and charge the candidate from the opposing party by questioning many of their actions and standings on many issues to tarnish their reputation. This is surprisingly known to stick with people due to its negativity, appearing as a much easier option for campaigns to create negative ads rather than positive ads.Investigative journalism is a detailed and undercover reporting of the underlying events that take place like scandals and schemes that the government would prefer the public not to know about, however through this genre of journalism many politicians and presidents gained attention as many of their scandals and schemes were revealed to the public such as the watergate scandals and the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal. This type of journalism allows the public to know about a person’s dark secrets that would ultimately influence whether they should vote for this person or not as well as having a huge influence over the public’s opinion when it comes to elections.Yellow journalism generally has no legitimacy and created for the sole purpose of catching people’s attention to increase numbers of newspaper sales, where it is generally the title of a newspaper that is overly exaggerated and most of the time it is a false statement to attract attention rather than delivering accurate information. This strategy affects people’s point of view and is generally not liked by the public, however it is a successful method for newspaper publishers to make more money through fooling people by misleading titles.Narrowcasting is a media program that targets a specific audience by focusing on a particular subject that only interests a group of people like ESPN, with the majority of its audience being the youth who use this as an alternative to newspaper or broadcast media, narrowcasting has greatly impacted media usage patterns. This allows the growth of narrowcasting to reach out for the youth of our country to be involved and informed about politics in a way that would be more convenient to them rather than only doing it through broadcasting.Nixon-Kennedy debate was the first televised presidential debate in which one’s appearance and body language played a huge role in people’s opinion who they should vote for, where everyone who watched the debate can distinctly point out how composed Kennedy was compared to Nixon, who looked really old and nervous.Anyone who watched the debate claimed that Kennedy won it, on the contrary the people who listened to the debate on the radio believed that Nixon won the debate. Many believed that the televised debate was the reason why Kennedy won the election. This debate was able to demonstrate how televised debates impacted people’s opinion of the candidates, many claiming that it had to much influence as people look for body language during a televised debate rather than closely listening to the candidate.Associated Press was established in 1848 in which it permitted telegraphic dissemination to the editors on a normal basis where the story had to originate from a reliable source, short, and free of any form of opinion or bias in the story. This ensured that there is no bias in the story that may sway people’s opinion as well as having a reliable source that people can trust and form their own opinion from the printed story.Leak is the advertising of confidential information about a politician for the media, generally to expose and ruin their reputation. Typically this information is released to gain attention or government branches report secret information about other branches in order to gain power by ruining the other branch’s reputation. This allowed the creation of the news embargo that was established to control leaks from taking place.Sound bites are 9 second clips that feature a politician’s speech on television, where when it was first introduced in 1968 they were around 43 seconds, however over the years the length of those clips have sharply declined. The establishment of sound bites was to intrigue people to watch the whole speech, where in those nine seconds they pick a part that summarizes the speech or a shocking part that would draw people in o watch the whole speech. This allowed people to be exposed to politics by watching a nine second clip, exposing them to many issues our country faces and allowing them to form their own opinion through the exposure of this topic.Liberal bias is the shown support of a news broadcast to the liberal ideology, that refuses to remain neutral while delivering the news by adding their own spin to the story or keep information hidden to have more people side with them. CNN is accused of practicing liberal bias, as they add their own input to the story rather than remaining unbiased. This caused a lot of controversy among news media for swaying people’s opinion on political issue by being bias, but it also allows the people to hear their side of the argument and its counter, to come up with their own opinion.Gatekeeper is the national press in which they come to a mutual agreement on which national problems should be considered a national issue and advertised on television and which should not be discussed. This mutual agreement makes sure that all press talks about it to emphasize the problems that needs to be dealt with and what procedures should be taken to put an end to this issue. This concept allows people to be well informed about the issues their country is facing, also another way to get people’s attention towards politics and have them take part and be involved in the solution. Watchdog Horse race journalism is political journalism that focuses on elections where they gather polling data and establishing list of similarities and differences between each candidate, having a complete analysis of the both candidates and the public’s opinions. This allows many people who believe that the media is bias refer to this form of journalism that is based on facts and the public’s opinion in which at no point they give their personal opinion on the election, allowing people to have a much better understanding of each candidate without being influenced by the news media.Press conference are meetings of officials or the president and reporters, which was first allowed by Roosevelt as he allowed two presidential press conferences to take place in the white house every week. He used this opportunity to reach out to the people as well as limiting what is released to the public from the press by being their ally, in which he would tell them what to broadcast and what to hold back as well as using this opportunity to clear up any misconceptions the public might have. This allowed the start of investigative journalism due to the weekly presence of the press in the White house, finding out about many scandals and secrets that took place however they were not allowed to report about it.White House Press Corps is an organization of journalists picked the Congressional committee in which they cover news on the White House and the President, in which there are several press corps but only a few are selected correspondents who their job is to talk to the president beforehand on some question that he might ask as well as regulating how the news is carried out to the press. This allows first hand interaction with the president of some information that is wanted to released to the public as well as have the opportunity to ask some questions that could be commonly asked by the people.Press secretary is a senior official from the White House in which is chosen to be the spokesman on the behalf of the executive branch, more particularly the president as well as discussing policies, in which their job is to gather information from all their sources as they meet with the media to inform them of the information that needs to be transferred to the press, along with working with the press corps. This allows reliable information to be transferred over to the press that directly comes from the White House as well as being one of the very few direct communications between the government and press to ensure no false statements are released.Press briefing are held by the White House Press Secretary and the press corps in which they engage in daily meetings where the press corps get to ask the press secretary some questions in regards to current issues that the country is facing as well as common questions that many people wonder. This allows the press corps to get day to day updates for their press and get answers to some unclear topics that many might wonder as well as being one of the first groups to find out about many breaking news.Spot are short advertisements through radios or television that typically last from ten to sixty seconds, but some can last up to half an hour in the form of a documentary, where the candidate can either choose to have a positive, contrast, or inoculation, however many candidates prefer negative ads as it sticks with people having the greatest emotional impact on people in comparison to other ads. This gives the opportunity to candidates to broadcast themselves as well as show voters why he is the better option, by expressing the qualifications he possesses over his opponent to be elected. Score keeper Feeding frenzy is the intensified coverage of an occurrence of a major scandal or scheme that took place that takes over news media, in the process blocking out many events that took place that would have been discussed by the media. This allows a lot more people to be informed about the scandal that took place in hopes of the people pushing for some policy that would prevent this scandal from taking place again and by discussing a important topic, broadcasts have increased their viewer rates because everyone wants to find out the latest update on the event that took place, by doing so the broadcast intensifies its coverage to get views.Fairness Doctrine was a policy set forth by the FCC in which it required that all broadcasts to discuss tendentious topics that concern the public in an honest and unbiased manner. This doctrine asked broadcasts to allocate some of their time to discuss popular topics no matter its relevance to politics as well as playing devil’s advocate and presenting both sides of the argument in a unbiased form. Many believe that political polarization is the leading cause to why the FCC removed this policy. This doctrine was able to gain people’s interest as it discussed some of the topics that people care about as well as ensuring that no broadcast was influencing people’s opinion by discussing both sides of the argument.Photo opportunity generally referred to as “photo op” in which it is an arranged time set by a politician and a photographer to take pictures of the politician during a special event, however many politicians or presidents use this as an opportunity to paint a good picture for themselves in front of the public by having the photographer take pictures while they are visiting senior citizens or giving food to the homeless to gain people’s support. This allows many running candidates to take advantage of this by hiring a photographer to take pictures of them doing good in order to gain a positive publicity and votes come election time.Selective exposure is the idea in which we pick what information we want to expose ourselves to rather than listening from both sides, where republicans would expose themselves to media that has the same ideology as the republicans and vice versa that with democrats. This limits our understanding of many political issues as we pertain to only one side of the argument rather than exposing ourselves to both sides and then analysing which argument was more convincing. Selective perception is the idea in which people only perceive the information that goes along with their ideology and simply ignore the opposing argument, claiming that it was weak, ultimately they never get to see the whole argument as they program themselves to pertain to the arguments they agree with. This could be a problem that leads to many political arguments between people with opposing viewpoints that refuse to listen to the opposing side, in which the lack of understanding on why the opposing group believes a certain thing gets in our way of bringing bipartisan peace and all it does is cause anger and hatred among political parties. Bully pulpit is an opportunity for the president to speak out on any issues he deems necessary to be discussed to the public, originated from Teddy Roosevelt in which he used this term to refer to the White House as an opportunity for him elaborate on his political agenda as well as reach out to many citizens by discussing his ideology through the media. This allowed people to better understand what the president believes in, his stance on many current issues the country is facing as well as what actions he will decide to take in order to put an end to this issue.

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