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Name: Bukola Akinsanya

Course: Newsroom Operations

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Date: 5th of January 2018

Matriculation Number: 14100110016


Question: Make a distinction between the newsroom structure and writing style for print and broadcast.

Rudin, R. and Ibbotson, T. (2002). An Introduction to Journalism: Essential techniques and background knowledge.  Oxford:  Focal Press.  Chapter FOUR pages 58-90 (key reading)



Broadcasting (radio and television)

Broadcast news stories are broader, important facts are still reported in the first paragraph, but broadcast news stories end decisively and do not trail off. For broadcast news, the dramatic harmony is similar to inverted pyramid but it uses a lead which is then followed by a climax, cause, and effect. Writing structure and style in writing are both important to the broadcast writer.

The average time for a television news story is usually one minute and 30 seconds long. Sentences are short and direct and punctuations should be kept to the lowest number, avoid clichés and long words. Good broadcast writers use words that sound good, they also use words that evoke images. A television news story must open with impact. Every story starts with a written script. Make use of adjectives, adverbs, verbs, superlatives, metaphors and other parts of speech.

Broadcast reports read the stories once unlike print stories that can be read as many times as needed, so they must be written very clearly to be understood on the first try.

In broadcast journalism, what you write is often what airs, little or no editing is done to it, broadcast writing are for the people to use their ears and sometimes eyes.

Broadcast strive for the now/present tense “The boy says the ball was never found”, it makes use of direct quotes, broadcast is more informal and doesn’t use middle initials unless they are part of a well-known person’s name, broadcast rounds off large numbers for an improved listener understanding, broadcast uses active voice for flow and to sound more immediate and punchy e.g. Knight church was presented a $200,000 grant by the Ford company, Broadcast spells out symbols such as $ (dollar) and % (percentage).For broadcast the names comes frist when quoting someone



Print news stories make use of inverted pyramid structure that contains the most important items the first paragraph and least important details are built from the lead sentence. Remaining facts are accessible in descending order according to their importance.

The average print new piece can vary greatly in length, print news leads are robust and answer many of the 5W and 1H (who, what, when, where, why and how) in regards to news.

Newspapers edit for clarity, fairness, and accuracy. They also edit to adjust to different house styles. Print news is tangible information structured to be reread, prints use past tense for their writing, print makes use of indirect quotations e.g. the man “The boy said the ball was never found”. Print is very formal in their writing and most times they make use of the full name of a person including the middle name, print is key to details and mentions the number in full words, print uses the passive voice for more words, print makes uses of symbols like as $ and %.

Print write-ups pay close attention to detail and explanations, they make use of pictures to form imageries in the minds of the reader plus they write using the human angle meaning they use the stories to touch the hearts of the readers. For print the when quotation comes before the person’s name.





1)         An Introduction to Journalism Essential techniques and background knowledge Richard Rudin Trevor Ibbotson ” Retrieved 6 January 2018, from 2002


2)         Print vs. Broadcast Journalism: Understanding the Differences. (June 5, 2014).  New York Film Academy. Retrieved 6 January 2018, from




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