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Odain  ByfieldEnglish IV Senior ProjectThe Availability Of Drugs To Teens And  Young Adults.              In the year 2015, studies show that more than 1 million youths in the U.S. between the ages of 12 and 17 suffer from drug addiction. It shows that a large amount of those students use drugs to better themselves academically or for sports and some uses it for relaxation or to get intoxicated “”. The overuse of drugs can lead to addiction, mental illness, behavioral problems and many more issues. There are some causes due to the availability of drugs that causes teens and young adults to become addicted to taking drugs.              Due to the availability of drugs in our surrounding many high school and even college students uses it for different reasons such as, to excel academically such as to stay up longer to study or to focus on studying. Some young athletes and professional uses enhancing drugs for sports uses, to get energy to play a sport to run faster or to get bigger and stronger. Other students use drugs for medicinal purpose to see better, to relieve pain or even to get rid of cold or fever or even to for sleep problems weather to stay awake or to sleep.              What are drugs you might ask? Well drugs are chemical that changes the way a person body or brain works. You might have heard that drugs are bad for you but what does it mean when they say its bad? There are three main types of drugs I will be talking about; medicinal drugs ( legal drugs), cigarettes and alcohol and illegal drugs.                 As you read along we will go more in depth into three types of drugs also we will talk about reasons why teens turn to drugs, also the stages of addiction, what is addiction and my views how drugs and drugs availability can destroy a teens life and the steps and roles you as an parent or adult can take to prevent your child from turning to drugs or how to support them in rehabilitation.               The availability of drugs to teens and young adults is an major issue in America. Drugs is extremely common in our society and is also easy product be acquirer by teen or even a young adult. Teens can get access to drugs in there communities due to large amount of people selling it and can get from their homes, using or abusing medication that does not belong to them for uses other than the prescripted uses. Drugs can also be acquired from a family member who smokes or inhale drugs passing or sharing with teens or even a younger person in the household.              The uses of drugs can also have a negative effect on ones life after a period of time. Some negative issues relating to drug availability are teens having behavioral problems, talking back to parents, fighting, cursing, gangs activities or even criminal activities. Another cause can be teens getting addicted to drugs leading to them needing rehabilitation, stealing to get more drugs or selling themselves for drug money. Also drug uses can be caused by peer pressure, teens taking drugs to look cool, trying to fit in a group or to get attention.                     Drugs is also a major issue when it comes to death among both teens, young adults and adults alike. Death due to drugs in a major problem in the United States over the years. They are several ways drugs can lead to death or mental illnesses.                     One of the main causes of death is Drug overdose, over 64,000 die in 2016 as a result of drug overdose. Pain killers are responsible for about 75% of drug overdose related deaths. Multiple intoxication increases the risk of drug overdose for example drinking alcohol and taking depressants can elevate the effects of all substances. Another issue is medical health risks, mental health can relate to being in control of one’s life, being happy, contentment or having your life in order.  People between the ages of 45 and 49 have the highest number of deaths due to drug overdose .””                Psychoactive drugs such as cannabis, alcohol, ecstasy and heroin have an ability to affect someone’s mood. Psychoactive drugs or psychopharmaceutical is an chemical substance than can change ones brain functions resulting in perception, mood change, consciousness or behavior.               Among youths in the U.S.A alcohol and other drugs (AOD) uses are linked to low achievement and other academic problem. The second most commonly abused drug is prescription drug. Prescription drugs are otherwise known as prescription medications are legally requires an medical prescription to be given out the dissimilarity with over the counter drug can be obtained without a prescription. Studies has revealed that one in every five college students abuse psychiatric medication to attempt to do better in school .””              When it comes to drug abuse there are several drugs that are abuses one of the main drug abuse is the Marijuana. For someone who uses marijuana are prone to have; glassy red eyes, speak loudly or inappropriate or move slow. Another popular drug that is commonly abuse by teens and young adults is Hallucinogens. Hallucinogens is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucination, perceptual anomalies and more substantial subjective changes thoughts emotion and consciousness.                 What is addiction? Addiction is a brain condition that is a result of over use of a substance which results in someone craving, seeking and using one or more substances even when these substances prove to be harmful to them mentally or physically.Drug dependence is a negative pattern of using a drug or a substance that lead to a number of problem in ones life. One of these problem include the addict needing more than what he or she used to take in order for the addict to get intoxicated.                  Addiction to drugs can be described is stages in which there are five main stages of addiction. The initial stage of addiction starts with the teen having as access to the drug but no use therefore. The second stage is when the teen, young adult or whoever starts to feel the need from expermententig or just an occasional use or the drug or  substance which result into a regular or weekly use or the drug. The third stage is characterised by youths as “progressing to further increasing the frequency or using one or more drugs on a regular basis” becoming more acceptable to using the substance. “”                The next stage which is the fourth stage is where adolescence have established regular usage of the substance having become preoccupied with getting intoxicated and have started to developed problems is there life whether socialising, in there educational or in their family lives. In  this stage parents can see the change in there child from the way they start to react to certain situations and how they are performing in school.                     The final stage is the fifth stage which is the most serious stage. This is the stage when drug use becomes define by the youth only as “feeling normal” when they use the drug. At this point drug use becomes an everyday product to the teen or young adult. In this time drug use is increased on a weekly or daily basis.                     Substance use can cause or mask other emotional problem such as anxiety, depression mood swing or hallucinations, liver and kidney problems or even fits. Some illegal drugs also kill the person the first time they use the drug. Different forms of drugs affect ones body in different ways, drugs such as psychoactive drugs affect the brain. The short term effect of drugs that occur depends on the amount of drugs the users take.When people talk about “drug problem” they usually talking about over using legal drugs or using illegal drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, LSD, crystal meth or ecstacy.  Illegal drugs are not good for anyone, but they are mainly bad towards the health of teens mainly because it affects their brain, heart and other important organs. Some drugs such as cocaine for instance can cause teens to suffer from heart attack to even kids or teens. While taken illegal drugs teens are more than likely to not perform well academically, sports, and other good activities. Illegal drugs are very unhealthy to teens or kids whose body are not fully developed and it also makes it difficult for them to think clearly.                 Drugs can cause you to end up in unwanted citation that causes the teen life to take a drastic turn in a direction that was not expected. Such citation may include the teen ending up in a state where they themselves  become the drug supplier, it is also a proven fact that juveniles who use drugs are more likely to having unprotected sex with strangers putting them at a great risk of unwanted pregnancy or even catching an Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) or even ending with the teen becoming a gang member teen may even end up getting put in jail to do time or even being killed.               As a parent, teacher or even anyone in charge of a child there are several signs you can look at and tell if someone is on drug.  Some of these signs may include; if you pay attention to the teen you will see a change in the behavore if the teens personalits or attitude changes that is a possible sign also, the teen eyes may look bloodshot the or the teen pupils may be smaller or even larger than they normally are, the teen starts to carry an unusual smell on breath, body, or clothes. Further signs maybe the teen having frequent nosebleeds which could be relating to the teen snorting drugs (meth or cocaine) or even changes in the teen sleep pattern.                Behavioral problems is also a a issues relating to drug been abuse by teens, and some of these new behavior the teen may start to portray are the teen starting to skip classes, getting in trouble at school, going against family values or beliefs, or the parents may be missing money, valuables, prescription, or prescription drug, borrowing or stealing money. Another sign might be the addict drop attendance and performance at work lose interest in extracurricular activities, hobbies, sports or experience decreased motivation.                Teens may also show psychological warnings too, warnings such as sudden mood changes, irritability, angry outbursts, or the teen just starts breakout laughing at nothing, teen may appears fearful, withdrawn, maybe experience anxiety, or paranoia for no apparent reason. Sometimes the teen might also have period of unusual hyperactivity or agitation or the teen may even have unexplained, confusing changes in personality or in their attitude towards life and curtain situations.                  Drug addiction is constantly in the rise, there are more than 23.5 million people in the United States so are in need of treatment for drug and alcohol abuse. Sadly out of that amount only 11% of them above the age of 12 years old receive the treatment required, 10%  of those who receive treatment are 12 to 19 years of age. According to Defining the Addiction Treatment Gap, a CATG review of the annual National Survey on Drug and Health released by Substance Abuse and Mental Services Administration (SAMHSA) and other national data sources, addiction still continues to impact our segment of American societies.                  As Dr. Taylor said that on a report, “our society and health care have been slow to recognize and respond to addiction as a chronic but also a treatable condition”. She also said ” while changes does not happen overnight, if health care reform is implemented properly, millions of Americans will be able to finally have insurance coverage for their addiction problems. This is an historical step towards comprehensive, integrated approach to health care that include treatment for drug addiction”.                        A major role player in people not being able to get the treatment they need to fight addiction is the fact that some addict do not have the money they need to dee a good doctor or the family support they need to help thep pull through. Cost and lack of insurance is the primary obstacle cited by Americans that need treatment but are unable to receive it. Among those who are able to accessed the treatment, nearly (48.4 percent) reported the money they used was their own person money spent to get treatment.                    In contrast to other chronic illnesses, sponsor towards addiction treatment disproportionately comes from government sources. More than three quarters – 77 percent of treatment costs are funded by federal state and local governments, including, Medicaid and Medicare. Private insurances pays for only 10 percent of addiction treatment costs. With out of pocket expenditures and other personal fundings making up the remanding percentage. In contrast, private insurance pay for approximately 37 percent of the general medical cost to treat drug addiction. Also you must note that screening and treatment is not integrated into the healthcare delivery system. Less than seven percent of those receiving treatment were refused by another health provider. In contrast, little more than two-third of the addicts receiving treatment got there through themselves or the criminal justice system helping them.                     As well as peep pressure genetic component can also be an issue that contributes to whether a person becomes addicted to drugs or alcohol. When scientist look for “addiction genes,”  what they are looking for are biological differences. These differences may make someone more or less vulnerable to becoming addicted to something. It may be more difficult for with a certain genes to quit a drugs once they start taking it. Or they may experiences more severe withdrawal symptoms if he or she tries to break out of the addiction.                     Scientists will or never be able to find just a single addiction gene. Like most other diseases, addiction vulnerability is a very complex charistic. Many factors determine the likelihood that a person will become an addict, including both inherited and also their surroundings.  Due to the fact that addiction is such a complex disease, fingering addiction genes can be a tricky task. Multiple genes environmental factors can add up to make an individual susceptible, or they may cancel each other out. Not every addict will carry simulay genes, and everyone who carry an addiction genes will display these quality. However, multiple lines of research shows that genes can influence addiction because addiction has an inherited component, it often runs in families.Researchers often study large families to learn which genes may be the cause of them susceptible to addiction. They begin by comparing DNA sequences in the family members who are afflicted by addiction wit the ones who do not have addiction problems. They look for pieces of DNA that are shared among affected individuals and less common in unaffected. Because humans have complex and varied lives, researches often look to animal models to learn more about how genetics influence addiction “.”                        When the researchers discover the genes that plays role in addiction in a modern organism such as fruit fly or mouses. They can identify the counterpart genes in humans by looking at similar DNA sequences”.”                         So yes genes does play a role in addiction. Most studies show that 50 percent of your risk of being an addict links to your genetics, days Dr Mohamad. “Alcohol and drug addiction is a chronic brain illness and just like other ( asthma, diabetes, etc)/ there is a strong genetic component. “”                          Despite all these facts even if your child becomes an drug addict the child can recover from his or her addiction help them to rehabilitate. Rehabilitation is the act of getting someone to health or to normal life through training and therapy. But as a parent having a child going through rehabilitation there are also some things that you must also remember such as you must maintain a strong clean throughout the treatment, parents can also support their child through the treatment and sure the child keep up with his or hers treatment. “”                         So in conclusion even tho some drugs can be good for you, it is very important that you do not abuse legal drugs because good drugs if use the wrong way it can lead to harmful damages to a  teens body or brain. So the even tho availability of drugs in our surrounding is very plentiful as an adult the best thing you can do is educate your child about drugs try to get an drug abuse class in every public and private schools to teach teens about drugs, drug abuse and the danger of using illegal drugs. Even if you see your teen getting huck to drugs as an parent the best thing for you to do is try to talk to the teen let the teen know the harm drugs can impact on them try to get the teen the help he or she needs to get off drugs and always remember to play attention and motivate your child positively.

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