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Part A : Purpose (Safety, Security and Well-Being)What is the important issue/theory/concept? Be specific and give details.Safety: Refers to the protection from or unlikely to cause danger, risk, injury or any bodily harm that could put one’s life at risk.Personal security: Refers to the protection against threats or acts of physical aggression. It also protects your psychological safety. It requires the state to provide police services, first-aid services and a fire department.Well being: Refers to the protection against acts and situations that affect your physical, psychological or emotional well-being. Identify what you learned from the issue/theory/concept. Extend beyond the course content.Canadian Charter of Rights and FreedomsSection 7 of the Charter declares that everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of the person and the right not to be deprived thereof except in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice.SurveillanceMass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens.Government surveillance came to light from a whistleblower named Edward Snowden. Edward Joseph Snowden is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the United States government who copied and leaked classified National Security Agency (NSA) information and documents showing that the US had spied on European Union (EU) internal computer networks in Washington and at the 27-member bloc’s UN office in New York. The leaked documents has revealed the series of activities that infringe upon the basic expectation of privacy, including but obviously not limited to a bulk collection of telephone records. Not only are Americans the target of this political mandate, victims worldwide including various organizations in Europe and Asia. Everything and anything to do on the internet which crosses over to a server in the US can be tracked by the NSA. While the legal onus is on Snowden as he has been charged in the US with theft of government property, unauthorised communication of national defence information and wilful communication of classified communications intelligence, it is worth mentioning that Snowden has stirred conversations and led people to rethink security, questioning the government that so promises to keep us safe. It also forced the NSA to become transparent and now the NSA creates an annual transparency record. Censorship Another important topic that transcends safety, security and well-being is censorship. Censorship is supervision and control of the information and ideas that are circulated among the people within a society.Censorship happens more frequently at the point of distribution than it does at the point of reception, such as an institution refusing to distribute a speech or a text through its channels. This type of censorship rarely leads to protests because outsiders rarely hear about it.The most common form of censorship is self-censorship, or censorship at the point of production, which means you have internalized the censor’s rules and decided to abide by them of your own volition. Perhaps you learned that the benefits of compliance outweigh the costs of resistance, or you rationalized that you can’t win anyway.But what is the real purpose of censorship?”The objectionable material may be considered immoral or obscene, heretical or blasphemous, seditious or treasonable, or injurious to the national security. Thus, the rationale for censorship is that it is necessary for the protection of three basic social institutions: the family, the church, and the state.”– New World Encyclopedia Three rationalizations for censorship:Ideas are false or dangerous by the standards of the authorities;The minds of those who would be subjected to the ideas to be censored are not capable of seeing the falsity and would be led astray; andIdeas that lead to antisocial behavior may be censored.– International Encyclopedia of the Social SciencesCensorship could either be good or bad, it depends how the society uses it. We have too much censorship in some areas of our society and too little censorship in others.Censorship: The goodCensorship of Pornographic Material and Child PornographyFor example, Censoring of pornographic material can prevent the corrupting of the society, especially the younger generation. Not only should censorship apply to pornographic material for children under 18, but the censorship of child pronography is of extreme importance. This can prevent access of such material, which hopefully, stop the creation of new content and finally, stop the perpetuation of these material. (Child Pornography) This will protect the vulnerable children from low-income families and also children from third world country from being preyed on. Censorship of Hate Speech”Its aim is to compromise the dignity of those at whom it is targeted, both in their own eyes and in the eyes of other members of society. And it sets out to make the establishment and upholding of their dignity… much more difficult. It aims to besmirch the basics of their reputation, by associating ascriptive characteristics like ethnicity, or race, or religion with conduct or attributes that should disqualify someone from being treated as a member of society in good standing.”Jeremy Waldron, a law professor at the New York University School of LawThus, hate speech is really anti-speech because it aims to shut down the speech of others. Defenders of hate speech often disguise it as “pride,” “state’s rights” or “religious freedom.” But we are mistaken to treat anti-speech as if it were normal speech, deserving of protection. We can and should be intolerant of intolerance.Some may ask, well what about our freedom of speech well in section 2 of Canada’s Charter of Rights and Freedoms it states that “Everyone has the following fundamental freedoms:”(a) freedom of conscience and religion;(b) freedom of thought, belief, opinion and expression, including freedom of the press and other media of communication;(c) freedom of peaceful assembly; and(d) freedom of association.However, in Sections 318, 319, and 320 of the Criminal Code forbid hate propaganda. It also states that “Hate propaganda” means “any writing, sign or visible representation that advocates or promotes genocide or the communication of which by any person would constitute an offence under section 319.” Section 318 prescribes imprisonment for a term not exceeding five years for anyone who advocates genocide. The Code defines genocide as the destruction of an “identifiable group.” The Code defines an “identifiable group” as “any section of the public distinguished by colour, race, religion, ethnic origin or sexual orientation.”Censorship: The BadIn China, social media is banned and many foreign TV and news outlets are either banned or redacted. The Chinese have no access to any information of past political events such as the Tiananmen Square massacre. On June 4, 1989, Chinese troops violently quashed a student led pro-democracy protest at Tiananmen Square in Beijing. More than a quarter century later, the Chinese government (with the exception of Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions) still censors and blocks all web pages, books, television shows that mention the event. Any person who seek to disseminate information about it are jailed. Furthermore, the state media beautify past events such as the Cultural Revolution and merely disseminate the positive impact while negating to mention any negative connotation.Why is this information important for students to learn? Give two reasons with supporting reasons.Surveillance is important for students to learn because of safety, security and personal well being. It helps us understand our actions and makes us think through our actions as everything you do can be seen by unwanted people. It also helps us to realize how to protect ourselves from potential hackers who can also take your data without your knowledge and hold it against you. Questions you should ask yourself: Do we want to live in a surveillance society that might ensure justice for all, yet privacy for none? In the name of safety, should we sacrifice our freedom?”You shouldn’t change your behavior because a government agency somewhere is doing the wrong thing,” Edward Snowden said. “If we sacrifice our values because we’re afraid, we don’t care very much about those values.”Censorship is important for students to learn because of safety, security and personal well being. It reinforces all other human rights, allowing society to develop and progress. The ability to express our opinion and speak freely is essential to bring about change in society.Free speech is important for many other reasons. Index on Censorship magazine editor, Rachael Jolley, believes that free speech is crucial for change. “Free speech has always been important throughout history because it has been used to fight for change. When we talk about rights today they wouldn’t have been achieved without free speech. Think about a time from the past – women not being allowed the vote, or terrible working conditions in the mines – free speech is important as it helped change these things” she said.Free speech is not only about your ability to speak but the ability to listen to others and allow other views to be heard. Jolley added: “We need to hear other people’s views as well as offering them your opinion. We are going through a time where people don’t want to be on a panel with people they disagree with. But we should feel comfortable being in a room with people who disagree with us as otherwise nothing will change.”This is just the surface as corrupt governments (Bourgeoisie) use surveillance and censorship to maintain their power over the middle and working class (Proletariat). They try to use surveillance to learn about the habits of the middle and working classes so that they can maintain their grasp of power and use censorship as a mean to control the thoughts of the citizens. Thus, it is important to learn about both surveillance and censorship.How does learning the information make you a better person? Give two reasons with supporting reasons.Edward Snowden’s actions help spread awareness about surveillance, cyber safety and security around the world and how to keep citizens safe from unknown dangers. This allows citizens to be aware of of the potential ways criminals can commit cyber crimes and identity theft, to be vigilant and watchful of any of these activities, and how to protect oneself from these crimes. Furthermore, People in power want to keep the power and Snowden recognized this and exposed the questionable activities of those in power (NSA). He exposed these dangerous and unconstitutional activities: the wholesale invasion of American and foreign citizens’ privacy that does not contribute to security and put in danger the liberty of Americans and other people world wide. With this knowledge, people will know how to protect future generations and take surveillance more seriously. Censorship is a very controversial topic and in different countries there are different laws and regulation surrounding what can be said. Knowing the difference between the good and bad of censorship can help people see the usefulness of censorship and how it could be both beneficial and a detriment to the citizens. It will also help prevent people from creating hate speech so that people will not discriminate against people of different race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, and culture, which in turn would lead to a better society and Canada as a whole.  

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