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PETROLEUM ENGINEERING LABORATORY

A REPORT ON EXPERIMENT 6

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EXPERIMENT ON HYDROGEN ION
CONCENTRATION (pH)

GROUP F

BY

OKOEGUALE COLLINS

15CN03282

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 
ABSTRACT

 
INTRODUCTION

 
METHODOLOGY

 
APPARATUS

 
PROCEDURES

 

 
RESULTS

 
MAINTENANCE

 
CONCLUSION

 
REFERENCE

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

PH is a very
important mud property because the control of some mud systems is based on
their pH. This experiment shows how the pH of mud samples are being determined
in the laboratory, the theory of the experiment, different ways by which it’s involved in the electrometric method
and also the calometric method. The mud to be used is suppose to be alkaline
and be in the range of 7 to 9.5 if the pH is too high the viscosity of the mud
will be too high.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                     

 

INTRODUCTION

pH is defined as a figure used in expressing the
acidity or alkalinity of a solution, in which when its below 7 it is considered
acidic, when its above 7 it is considered alkaline and when its 7 it’s
considered neutral. The
pH can be determined using either the Calorimetric method or the Electrometric
method.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

METHODOLOGY

 

A.  
Calorimetric Method(pH paper)

The pH paper is impregnated with dyes that exhibit different
colours when exposed to solutions of varying pH. High concentration of salt in
the sample may alter the colour developed by the dyes and cause the estimate of
pH to be unreliable.

 

 

B.  
Electrometric Method(pH Meter)

The pH meter is an instrument that determines the pH of an aqueous
solution by measuring the electropotential generated between a special glass
electrode and a reference electrode.

 

 

APPARATUS

1. Bentonite (35g)

2. pH paper

3. Spatula

4. Measuring Cylinder

5. Beaker

6. Electronic mixer

7. Weighing Scale

 

 

PROCEDURES

PROCEDURES USING pH
paper

SAMPLE 1

1.    Measure 350ml of water with the use
of a measuring cylinder.

2.    Weigh carefully 35 g of bentonite on
the weighing balance.

3.    Add the 35g of bentonite into the
350ml of water and mix thoroughly with the electronic mixer.

4.    Put the slurry obtained in a beaker
for testing.

5.    Tear off a short strip of pH paper
and place it on the surface of the sample.

6.    When the colour of the pH paper
stabilizes it is then match against the standard colour chart.

SAMPLE 2 (WITH CALCIUM CHLORIDE
ADDED)

1.    Measure 350ml of water with the use
of a measuring cylinder.

2.    Weigh carefully 35 g of bentonite on
the weighing balance.

3.    Weigh 3g of the salt.

4.    Add the bentonite into the water and
then the 3g of the salt and mix thoroughly using the electric mixer.

5.    Tear of a short strip of pH paper and
place it on the surface of the sample.

6.    When the colour of the pH paper
stabilizes it is then match against the standard colour chart.

 

 

WITH THE pH METER

SAMPLE 1

1.    Measure 350ml of water with the use
of a measuring cylinder.

2.    Weigh carefully 35 g of bentonite on
the weighing balance.

3.    Add the 35g of bentonite into the
350ml of water and mix thoroughly using the electronic mixer.

4.    Put the slurry obtained in a beaker
for testing.

5.   
Turn on the pH meter

6.   
Push the pH/mV key until the annunciators indicate the desired mode

7.   
Rinse the probe with distilled water and immerse the probe into the
solution.

8.   
Allow 60 to 90 seconds for the reading to stabilize.

 

SAMPLE 2

1.    Measure 350ml of water with the use
of a measuring cylinder.

2.    Weigh carefully 35 g of bentonite on
the weighing balance.

3.    Weigh 3g of the salt.

4.    Add the bentonite into the water and
then the 3g of the salt and mix thoroughly using the electric mixer.

5.   
Turn on the pH meter

6.   
Push the pH/mV key until the annunciators indicate the desired mode

7.   
Rinse the probe with distilled water and immerse the probe into the
solution.

8.   
Allow 60 to 90 seconds for the reading to stabilize.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RESULTS

SAMPLE 1

 

Colorimetric : 9pH

 

Electrometric:
9.01pH

 

Temperature at 27.8oC

 

 

SAMPLE 2

 

Colorimetric: 7pH

 

Electrometric:
7.30pH

 

Temperature at 28.1oC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MAINTENANCE

1.    The probe tip should never be let to
become dry.

2.    If the tip of the probe is dry dip
the probe in Potassium Chloride solution for 30mins or in water for 2 hours.

3.    When the electrode is not in use
replace the cap which should be filled with KCL.

4.    Do not use distilled or ionized water
for storing.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

 

In conclusion, a pH of
7.0 is said to be neutral, a pH higher than 7.0 is in the alkaline range while
a pH lower than 7.0 is in the acidic range.

From Sample 2 it shows that the
addition of salt decreases the pH of the sample which is not ideal cause salt
is used as a contaminant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE

 

CU DRILLING MUD MANUAL. (pg 22-25)

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