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POVERTY

                 Made by AKHILA . M

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                                  MEGHA C.K

                                         BA
ECONOMICS

                                       KR SREE
NARAYANA COLLEGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain
amount of material possessions or money. Poverty is a multificated concept,
Which may include social, economic and political elements. Absolute poverty,
extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means
necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food, clothing and shelter.

                              The threshold at
which absolute poverty is defined is considered to be about the same,
independent of the person’s permanent location or era. On the other land,
relative poverty occurs when a person who lives in a given country does not
enjoy a certain minimum level of “living standards” as compared to the rest of
the population of that country. there fore , the threshold at which relative poverty
is defined varies from country to another or form one society to another.

                                       Poverty
reduction is still a major issue for many international organization such as
the united nations and the world bank.

 

INTRODUCTION

   Poverty is a
depressing condition in which an individual or a family is unable to afford an
adequate level of living in keeping with the society’s standards.   Absolute poverty is a life-threatening
condition of deprivation of access to basic necessities of life such as food,
shelter, clothing and health care. The paradox of poverty in the midst of
affluence has been a major challenges faced by the United States historically.
While the rich get richer the conditions of the poor are getting much worse.
Thus, poverty Remain as a major social problem in the country despite several
decades of the war on poverty.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OBJECTIVES

   Our aim to
compact poverty by working with others to empower individuals and communities
to affect change in the distribution of power and resources.

·        
To work with people and communities
experiencing poverty to empower them to address poverty.

·        
To work with organisation to built a strong
anti-poverty network

·        
To support the development of policies
which promote social justice and combat poverty

·        
To raise a warmness about poverty and encourage
debate about solution.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

·        
 What is poverty

·        
Rural poverty

·        
Urban poverty

·        
Characteristics of rural poor and urban
poor

·        
Poverty line

·        
Categorising poverty

·        
Causes of poverty

·        
Poverty alleviation , policies and
programmes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHAT IS POVERTY

                
Poverty is a situation in which any Section of the society do not have
sufficient income to fulfil the basic necessities of effective food, clothing,
shelter, and education etc….

Poverty can be defines in two ways.

1.      Absolute
poverty

2.      Relative
poverty

 

1.     
Absolute poverty

                              Absolute poverty
may be defined as the inability of a person to achieve the minimum of a
consumption needs (foods, shelter, clothing etc..) for life with his income.

   2.Relative poverty

                               While comparing
the two sections of people in the economy. If we have able to explain how much
one section of the society is same in resources compared to the other section
then that comparison can be taken as a measure of relative poverty. Relative
poverty occurs due to the inequality in the distribution

Of income in the economy.

                  
Eg:-  A cording to the estimate of
world bank                 in 2002 , out
of the total population in India people with higher income, approximated by 10%
of the total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POVERTY LINE

           
Poverty line is an imaginary line. It
separates the people of a country into 2 categories

1)     
Poor

2)     
Non-Poor

             Poor can be divided
in to various sub divisions.

·        
Absolutely
poor

·        
Very poor

·        
Poor

           In the same way
non-poor can be divided in to various group

·        
Not poor

·        
Middle
class

·        
Upper
middle class

·        
Rich

·        
Very rich

                          This can
be illustrated in the following way.

 

 

CATEGORISING
POVERTY

            Poverty can be
classified in to various ways. This evident from the following chart.

 

 

 

 

Always poor    usually poor    churning poor      occasionally poor   Never  poor

 
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

           Chronic poor                                          Transient
poor                    Non poor

 

·        
Always poor- People who always like below
poverty line.

·        
Usually poor-People who may have come
above poverty line very

·        
Churning poor- People who have regularly
move in and out of poverty.

·        
Occasionally poor- People who often stay
above the poverty line.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

POVERTY ALLEVIATION – POLICIE AND PROGRMAES

1)      Swarna
jayanti gram swarosgar yojana(SJSY)

          

                      This programme was
announced in 1999.This programme was introduced by merging some of the
programmes prevalling before.They are the following.

·        
TRYSEM- Training rural youth for self
employment (1979):- This programme aims at providing training to poor rural
youth to enable them to take uo self employment

·        
IDRP- Integrated Rural Development
Programme(1980):- This programme was assists to find self embloyment to those
farmers who live below poverty line, agricultural labourers, and craftsman in
rural areas.

·        
DWCRA- Development of Women and Children
in Rural Areas(1982):- This programme was launched for thr development of women
and children in rural areas.

·        
Million Well Scheme:- This programme ws
mainly introduced through self help groups.

 

2)Sampoorna Grameen Rosgar Yojana (SGRY)

                 This programme was launched in
2001.The programme aims at providing food security and embloyment to rural
people.Some other programmes had also merged inti this programme.They are the
following

·        
RLEGP (Rural landless employment generaton
programme) – This programme provides embloyment to rural landless labour.

·        
JRY (Jawahar Rozgar Yojana)- This
programme also provides embloyment to rural poor.

·        
NREP (National Rural Embloyment
Programme)- NREP was the new name given to the restricted ‘food for work’
programme. NREP and RLEGP have been merged in to JRY. Later all these
programmes were integrated with SRRY.

·        
JGSY(Jawahar Gram Samurudhi Yojana)- This
programme was launched in 1999. Its main objective was the creation of social
assets in rural areas.

 

 

 

3)      Nehru
Rozgar Yogana (NRY)

                     

                    This programme aims at
providing employment to urben poor.

4)      Swarna
Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)

                       This programme was
introduced in 1997.it’s main objective was alleviation of poverty in urban
areas. It also aims at creating employment opportunities both self employment
and wage employ-ment in urban areas.

5)      Prime
Minister Rozgar Yogana (PMRY)

                             Under PMRY, the
educated un embloymed from low income families in rural and urben areas can get
financial help to setuo any kind of enterprise.

6)      Mahatma
Gandhi National Employment Guarantee                             Programme (MGNREGP)-2006

                 
In 2005, Indian parliament has passed employment guarantee act.This
programme was implemented according to this act. Acoordingly,  government promises 100 days of guaranteed
wage employment to all rural house holds who are willing to provide unskilled
manual work. This wa implemented all over the country from 2008 onwords.

Food Security Programmes

·        
Public Distribution System (PDS)- Food
grains are made available at cheaper rates to the poor by the government.

·        
Integrated Child Development Scheme
(ICDS)- This is a food security programme for children below 6 years of age,
and pregnant or lacting women.

·        
Middle Meals at School- This programme was
launched in 1995. This programme helped to control the dropoutes of students
from school and it can be ablr to attract more children to school.

·        
Annapurna Scheme- This programme commenced
in the year 2001. Indigent senior citizen who are not getting the old age
pension are covered under the schemn.10 kg of food grains per person per month
are supplied free cost under the scheme.

·        
Antyodayan Auna Yojana- Under this scheme,
Food grains are made available to very poor families at cheaper rate.

 

 

 

Social Security Programmes

·        
Old age pension for the elderly people who
are without support.

·        
Support for women of poor house holds on
pregnancy and on delivery.

·        
Janasree Bhima Yojana- Insurance coverage
for those who lives below poverty line.

·        
 Rasgtriya Swasthya Bhuma Yojana (2007)-
Healthcare programme for the workers in unorganised sector.

·        
Am Admi Bhima Yojana(2007)- This scheme
provides insurance protectin for the landless in rural areas.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

·        
As poverty has always existed in the society
even before the process of robotization.

·        
The roots of poverty should be found in
the different area such as rapid growth of population and lack of education

·        
Better technology makes the production
process  more efficient and less
expensive in the long run

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCE

·        
Plus one economics written by JOHNSON. K.
JOICE and SWAPNA. M

·        
Indian economy development and statistics
for economics written by Dr. V K . VIJAYAKUMAR and Dr. P K. LAZAR

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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