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Psychological disorders are classified as behaviors
and mental processes seriously interrupting with one’s ability to go through
everyday life (Rathus , 2003, p. 410). Anxiety is one of
the most common forms of psychological disorders among adults; at least 30% are
affected at least once in their lives. Some anxiety however, is caused by
stress and is considered normal (Ranna Parekh, 2017). But, some people’s anxiety can become
so severe they cannot properly go through everyday life and need to receive
medical attention for the anxiety to be cured.

Anxiety is classified as a general state of unease and
constant worry about unrealistic or realistic dangers. These worries do not
come for any specific reason; they just occur. When one’s worry to the
situation does not match their age, preventing them to properly function during
everyday life it may be an anxiety disorder (Ranna Parekh, 2017). An example of
this would be an adult with a tremendous fear of the dark so they refuse to
walk down a poorly lit hallway unless given a flashlight. This could be a sign
of anxiety. However if the person was violently attacked in a poorly lit
alleyway before there is a reason for it, or if a young child had a fear of the
dark; that is normal and less likely to be a sign of anxiety. Common symptoms of
anxiety disorder are sweating, trembling, dizziness and rapid heartbeat
(American Psychological Associoation, 2017). While these symptoms are common
for simply being nervous there are some differences. When one is nervous, it is
not for extend periods of time and they can function normally, they can get
over it and do the given task. A person would just be nervous to walk down a
dark hallway but still do it. Someone with anxiety cannot walk down that
hallway.

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            There are many different types of
anxiety disorders, all caused for different reasons. The different types as
stated in the DSM V are Separation Anxiety Disorder, Selective Mutism, Specific
Phobia, Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia), Panic Disorder, Panic Attack
Specifier, Agoraphobia, Generalized Anxiety Disorder,
Substance/Medication-Induced Anxiety Disorder, Anxiety Disorder Due to Another
Medical Condition, Other Specified Anxiety Disorder and Unspecified Anxiety
Disorder (DSM V, 2013).
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is also a type of anxiety (Rathus , 2003, p. 416). There are many
different types of anxiety, all occurring for different reasons.

Specific
phobic disorders are one of the most common forms of anxiety. It is described
as excessive and unnecessary fear of one particular object or situation. This
form of anxiety does not usually appear to be harmful; the person is aware that
their fear is not necessary but they cannot help it. The person usually avoids
their fear if at all possible (Ranna Parekh, 2017).

Social
phobia, also referred to as social anxiety is similar to specific phobia. It is
the intense fear of social situations where embarrassment humiliation and
rejection may occur (Association A. P., 2017).  Someone with Social Anxiety has fear of
specific social situations like meeting new people, and eating in public (DSM V, 2013). Nervousness during
public speaking is normal, it however is not normal to be nervous months in
advance and start to cry, physically unable to give the oral presentation when
the time comes. Agoraphobia is an intense fear of crowded public places where
escaping could either be difficult or impossible. This phobia can become so
intense one may not leave their own home (Rathus, 2003, p. 416). While not
liking crowded places is normal and people may not go shopping on Black Friday,
they can and will be okay doing so. Someone with agoraphobia cannot leave and
will not leave their home.

Panic
disorder is when someone has constant, reoccurring panic attacks. The feeling
in ones chest during an attack is very similar to a heart attacks o people
often go to an Emergency room hoping for help (Ranna Parekh, 2017). Panic attacks are seen in correlation
with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, very strong fears often in relation to a
traumatic event. These fears often last up to years after a given event and
triggers often cause a panic attack (Association A. P., 2017). A traumatic event
can vary for different people, while people often think of a war veteran
returning for home, or it could spur from a rough childhood where one was
abused.

Generalized
anxiety has no real known reason for the disorder. One just is anxious; nothing
happened to cause it and nothing in particular triggers it. People are just
constantly worried about something whether it be the bills, getting in an
accident or a due date and classwork. Generalized anxiety tends to be less
common with only 2% of adults in America suffering from it (Ranna Parekh, 2017). While most people may worry over some
of those things, people with Generalized Anxiety never get a break from their
worries.

Anxiety
Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition is anxiety over a medical condition,
possibly a side effect, one has but it is not always persistent; it will come
and go. Other Specific Anxiety Disorder is anxiety around a specific topic like
school or work but does not fit any specific form of anxiety. Unspecified
anxiety disorder is anxiety that does not meet any specific form of anxiety for
any exact reason. Substance or Medication Induced Anxiety is anxiety relate to
either medicine or medical procedures and stop afterwards (DSM V, 2013).
These anxiety disorders are fairly straightforward and the reason for their
occurrences. Selective Mutism is when one refuses to speak in certain
situations such as school (DSM V, 2013).

Obsessive
Compulsive Disorder (OCD) can be a form of anxiety also. People with this tend
to have persistent uncontrollable urges feelings and thoughts about particular
things or routines (Association A. P., 2017). While many people
tend to have their routines and enjoy consistency in their life, always doing
the same action the same way all the time if something changes they will still
be able to normally function and not have a break down. Someone with OCD will have
a break down and cannot under any circumstances change it, that is when there
is an issue and it may be considered a disorder.

Separation
Anxiety is also a form of anxiety. These individuals have intense fear or
separation from people they grew attached to in such a manner that is not
appropriate for their age (Ranna Parekh, 2017). Many people with Separation Anxiety
tend to have excessive worry about an event and being separated or lost from
who they are with. They also may refuse to leave their home due to the
possibility of being separated (DSM V, 2013).
It is normal for a little kid being dropped off at school on the first day of
Kindergarten to not want to leave their parents but a teenager not wanting to
leave home for high school or their parents to go to work, or go out on the
weekends without them in fear they will not return is not normal.

Anxiety
is actually a very treatable disorder despite people refusing the help for it.
Which is sad when it can easily be treated with therapy and sometimes
medication. However, that is not always necessary there are multiple forms of
therapy including group and individual (Ranna Parekh, 2017). With many forms of help many people
often find themselves easily being treated for the disorder; if they seek
treatment. One should consider seeking help from a psychologist, whom is a
trained professional to help one find a way to cope and overcome an anxiety
disorder, if they find themselves overwhelmed with thoughts and feelings
related to anxiety: anxiousness, feeling overwhelmed and restlessness (Association A. P., 2017). Some restlessness
and feelings of anxiousness are normal but if it affects one’s ability to
normally function and do daily activities it may be a disorder and worth
consulting a doctor about.

There
are two components to overcoming an anxiety disorder, cognitive and behavioral
components. The cognitive component involves learning how the thoughts are
occurring, pinpointing the cause or trigger of them. Then one can then train
themselves to think differently over those situations. The behavioral component
involves learning ways to reduce the actions these thoughts cause and working
on changing them in action (Association A. P., 2017). Learning methods on
how to act differently can prove to be extremely powerful. If one’s mind
believes it and does not let the previous cause of the anxiety bother them,
slowly working on changing habits it may work to cure them no longer having the
anxiety disorder. One who suffers from a social disorder may make a few more
phone calls or ordering and purchasing items in person versus online a few
times until it no longer bothers them anymore. While the risk factor and cause
of one developing an anxiety disorder remains unknown, it is likely due to
genetics, environment and or psychological development (Ranna Parekh, 2017).

Group
therapy and family therapy are also optional forms of therapy (Association A. P., 2017). With so many options
of therapy one should be able to find a type that works for them. There are
many different coping methods. With this being said, most anxiety patients are
cured or have lessened symptoms in under a year (Association A. P., 2017).

The
cognitive theory believes the person creates the fear in their head. The
learning theory sometimes also explains it saying the anxiety is rooted from a
childhood experience. Bandura felt fears were learned by watching parents
behave a certain way in given situations. Although no longer widely accepted at
one point people believed the psychoanalytical theory explained anxiety. Freud
believed it resulted from childhood urges that have been taught as bad so one
tries repressing the thoughts (Rathus , 2003, p. 419). Some studies show
the biological aspect. If one identical twin has anxiety there is a 45% chance
the other one will also have anxiety; with fraternal twins it is a 15% chance (Rathus ,
2003, p. 419).
No matter what the cause is, psychological disorders such as anxiety can
seriously affect one’s ability to function during everyday life and with so
much help it is important they seek it, and have a chance at a “normal” life.

Works Cited
American Psychological Associoation. (2017, November
15). American Psychological Association. Retrieved from Anxiety:
http://www.apa.org/topics/anxiety/
Association, A. P. (2017, November 17). Beyond
Worry: How Psychologists Help With Anxiety Disorders. Retrieved from
American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/anxiety.aspx
DSM V. (2013). In A. P. Association, Anxiety
Disorders (pp. 115-128). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association .
Ranna Parekh, M. M. (2017, November 16). What Are
Anxiety Disorders? Retrieved from American Psychiatric Association :
https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/anxiety-disorders/what-are-anxiety-disorders
Rathus , S. A. (2003). Psychology- Priniciples in
Practice. In S. A. Rathus . Austin : Holt. Rinehart and Winston.
 

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