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Recent work family research has
primarily aim attention on women and mothers in the workplace (Mitchell et al.,
2007), thus leaving a void in considering fathers’ work family
experiences.  This a fault finding issue,
in the sense that fathers are now being more engrossed in active familial role
by taking up supplementary responsibilities and needs in their families.

Comparatively few studies have been
investigated on work family conflict among men (Duxbury and Higgins, 1991;
Halrynjo, 2009) with an even more marked paucity on men with children (for
exceptions – Alard et al., 2011; Galinsky et al.,2008).  There are strong arguments that this
disparity in the literature demands consideration for several reasons.  Firstly, men who are parents are expected to
form part of the labour force than women who are parents too (Bureau of Labour
Statistics, 2010).  Furthermore,
researchers (Thoits, 1986) have suggested that men develop more implication
from work than women, thereby suggesting that work could be more fundamental to
men’s lives than women’s (Galinsky et al., 2008).  Moreover, researchers have also advanced that
fathers play an instrumental part of their families’ lives (Harrington et al,.
2010).  In addition, despite the fact
that women continue to be accountable for a greater percentage of household
chores, men’s family obligations have heightened in recent years (Pleck, 2010),
thus directing towards a rise in men’s work-family conflict (Eagle et al.,
1997; Galinsky et al,. 2008).  Also, in a
similar vein, there has been a dearth of studies examining work-family conflict
and fathers under the ‘new father’ paradigm. 
The ‘new father’ ideology of gender roles has integrated additional
fair-minded gender roles such as equal cooperation in household and care giving
obligations (Bocchicchio, 2007; Paterna and Martinez, 2006).  However, these disjointed and clear cut
duties in the work and family life roles can definitely lead to adverse
ramification such as work-family conflict.

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gender roles is crucial when delving into the work attitude of fathers as there
are many societal norms associated with the work and family realms there are
identified with being a father (Cottrane, 1996).  One conventional role for fathers is that of
‘breadwinner’.  For the last centuries, father’s
role has been focused around furnishing financial support for one’s family (The
breadwinner model; Coltrane, 1996; Griswold, 1993, Lamb, 1986; Pleck, 1987).  Having this traditional masculine gender role
focal point, it is however unpredictable that numerous individuals would define
the term ‘good fathering’, in terms of a gratifying work ethic and job
achievement; (Cooper,2000; Pyke, 1996). 
Men normally forge masculine identities established on factors such as
profession.  There is no denying the fact
that while attaining a high occupational status enables the man to acquire an
income producer status at home, at work and among other cohorts (Buzzanell and
Turner, 2003).  It goes without saying
that society has fortified the traditional breadwinner perception by gratifying
men’s changeover to fatherhood by granting for career promotion and the chance
to work for longer hours (Eggbeen and Knoester, 2001; Knoester and Eggbeen,

it is worth pointing out that ‘fathering and masculinity may be in the process
of social reconstruction’ (Duckworth and Buzzanell, 2009,p.569).  As ideas of fatherhood are established on
contemporary cultural ideologies alterations in the economy and other current
amendments, for instance labour laws, industrialization and technology; have
for sure generated modifications in this role. 
The fathering role has altered to comprise of being a role model,
committed parent and nurturer (Askari et al, 2010; Lamb, 2000).  Current research advance that fathers are
performing more nurturing roles that have been customarily allocated to mothers
(Askari et al., Lamb, 2000).  Current
research advance that fathers are performing more nurturing roles that have been
customarily allotted to mothers (Askari et al., 2010; Bretherton et al.,
2005).  Furthermore, it has been noted
that the rate of stay-at-home fathers has augmented substantially in the last
ten years, from 93,000 in 2000 to 154,000 in 2010 ( US Census Bureau,
2011).  Therefore it is primordial to
acknowledge how men’s assumptions about fatherhood are relevant to their
allocation of time in work and family and eventually their experience of
work-family conflict.  According to
gender role theory, individuals who attribute to a conventional masculine
gender role would spend more hours at work as compared to an individual who
does not adopt a traditional manlike gender role (Duckworth and Buzzanell,
2009; Knoester and Eggebeen, 2006).

This further advocates that a father who commends
traditional gender roles would have inadequate time to execute other roles
outside of work for instance, fathering role, and therefore would go through
more time-based work-family conflict.

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