Recreational means action done when one is not
working, for enjoyment .Medically; recreational drugs are explained as a drug
which is used for its psychoactive effects frequently with the assumption that
seldom use does not cause an addiction without any medical justification. These
are also defined as substances which are used to modify mental state by
changing feelings and perception of a person. Recreational drugs are also known
as psychoactive substances, illegal drugs and illicit drugs in many researches.
They are broadly divided into three main
categories that are Depressants,
stimulants and hallucinogens. Some
commonly used recreational drugs are cannabinoids, opoids, stimulants, club drugs, hullocinogens, magic mushrooms
and dissociative drugs.
There are many unwanted
effects of drugs which are belong to their chemical nature some common effects
are HIV virus, hepatitis, unusual social and sexual behavior, accidents and
fights are common.
There are different
methods of taking drugs that are oral, inhalation, intravenous injections,
snuffing and smoking (simple and pipe).
According to their
harmful effects they are classified into 3 classes, class A, class B, and class C with class A including most harmful
drugs that is cocaine, ecstasy and LSD etc. class B includes cannabis, codeine
and barbiturates. Class C includes steroids and tranquilizers.
Drugs are scheduled
into 5 types by Misuse of drugs regulation. Schedule 1 drugs are those which have
no medical use like LSD, cannabis, raw opium and ecstasy. Schedule 2 drugs can
be prescribed legally including opium, morphine and amphetamine. Schedule 3
includes barbiturates and barbiturates which can also be prescribed legally.
Schedule 4 drug include tranquilizers with minor chances of addiction. Schedule
5 drugs are least likely to be abused and can be used without prescription.
Use of recreational
drugs among young generation especially students are drastically increased in last
few decades. It includes in the one of the primary problems which is battled globally.
Worldwide many researches had done in different universities and colleges
concluded that use of drugs among students is increasing day by day. According
to different researches besides drinking, cannabis is most commonly used drug worldwide
followed by stimulants, cocaine and opiods. There are different causes given by
many researchers that are psychological problems, gender, age, curiosity,
failure, trauma, socioeconomic status, availability, culture, family and so on.
But in students main reasons are stress, anxiety, curiosity, reduce control of
parents, to increase performance, increased opportunities to use new things, lack
of knowledge and responsibilities of universities towards students. Most of the
students practiced drugs before entering the universities between the ages of
10-15 years which is an alarming situation.
Medical students are
also in the influence of drug addiction. It is normally consider that medical
students are abstained from drug usage because of their field and in future
they are going to treat people which are influenced by their addiction. Many
researches has approved that medical students are also involving in drug usage.
In non-Muslims countries there is no prohibition of drinking so it is common in
these students, but there is alarming situation that they exceeds the normal
sensible limit with average 88000 deaths per year globally. After that
according to area other drugs are common. Main reasons stated in researches are
anxiety, stress increased performance.
Situation is not
different in Muslim countries despite of prohibition in Islam. Drug usage is
common in students. In Turkey, Saudi Arabia alcohol major issue among medical
students. There is same situation in other Muslim countries and neighboring
country (India).in our country situation is also very alarming many researches
has done in many medical colleges showing and increased usage of drugs smoking
and pipe smoking is most battled condition then other drugs. Use of sedatives
and CNS stimulants are common in medical students because of their hectic
routine and complicated course.
There is need to
control the situation by finding the root cause and try to solves these
problems and save the students from these dreadful substances especially
medical students as they have an
important responsibilities in future towards community if the situation is not
control it will be difficult for them in dealing with patient.
addiction spreading like a fire about 247000000 of population is drug user. In
2008 it was found that between the ages 15-64 ages of world’s population around
155-200 million people use recreational drugs. Due to increasing trend of drug
addiction worldwide diseases are also increasing about 5.4% of total population.
Uses of different types of substances are very
old among people. Many researches had been done in past centuries now it is
increasing with time. In 1883-84 and1993-94 according to survey conducted at
the University of Newcastle upon Tyne on second year medical students indicated
the considerably increased in drinking, use of cannabis and other illicit
A study was conducted in
six Latin American’s countries and Jamaica which was cross –sectional about use
of psychoactive drugs among medical and health students. According to this
study 30.3% students were accepted the precedent year practice of drugs. Half
of the students 50.3% were accepted that they first practiced the drugs between
the ages of 15-19 years. According to research there is increased frequency of
alcohol, then non prescription drugs, tobacco and cannabis. There was no
significant difference between gender and age.
Shifting from high
school to universities is a hectic practice. Reduce parental control and
increase opportunities of practicing new drugs increases the threat of drug
abuse. Maddux et al found that mostly medical students are drugs users In United States America nearly all the
students use alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and opoids are mostly used.
McCabe et al prominent
that most of the students used drugs before joining the medical institute
reasons were to improved performance and reduced anxiety and stress and pain.
In Colombia and Bogota,
among the medical students in the last year of internship stress is induced due
to increased workload produces increased incidence of symptoms of anxiety, depression
and somatic complaints which in turn increases the use of substance usage and
deteriorates the worth of life among these students.
According to national
survey on drug use and health (NSDUH) in 2014 21.5 million Americans between
the age (12 or more) combated with drug abuse disorder. 80% among drug abuse
disorder struggled with drug alcohol abuse.
In UK questionnaire
based study was conducted on second year students of ten universities in
1996.According to this study use of alcohol among students had catastrophically
increased from the normal sensible limit. Hazardous Binge drinking and was also
reported. Only 11% of students were reported as non-drinkers. Study also
confirmed the increasing use of cannabis among students. Some students also declared
the use of other drugs such as ecstasy, LSD, amphetamine, amyl/butyl nitrate,
magic mushrooms and tobacco. The most common reported reasons were pleasure,
anxiety, stress, curiosity and to increase performance .Another significant reason
may be lack of knowledge and responsibilities of universities towards students.
There was minute difference between gender however marked difference between
white and non white population. Most of them practiced drugs before entering to
substances are constantly introduced to the society. Students are also
practicing these new substances. Study in Australian’s high school showed that
3% of students were admitted that they used new psychoactive drugs then
synthetic cannabis (2.4%) and stimulants (0.4%).they also declared the use of
tobacco and binge drinking in the past half year. They had low self resistant
towards colleagues offer and high emotional stress than non-users.
In morocco a
cross-sectioned study was conducted in middle and high school affirmed that
students started substances at very young age including smoking, alcohol,
inhalants, amphetamine, cocaine, heroin and cannabis with highest rate of life
time prevalence. Males are more users than females; reasons declared are family
tobacco usage and family insecurity.
Study conducted Brazil
(Honduras) on medical students revealed that alcohol was most commonly used
substance followed by caffeine, herb tea, energy drinks. Drugs like sedatives,
cocaine and marijuana are used in minute quantities. Prevalence among males is
more significant than females with the reasons of stress and pleasure in males
and increased performance and fatigue in female. Other important reason is
tough medical studied and negligence of universities to teach them how to cope
with this stressful situation.
Ethiopia, in a sequence of prevalence alcohol, khat chewing and smoking are
common in students.
study on medical students declared that 25% of the students admitted the
practicing of substances once in a life mostly at the mean age of 18 years.
Most commonly used substances are hashish and marijuana because of easily
availability of substances.
Study was also
conducted in Muslim countries despite of religious prohibition use of alcohol
and other recreational drugs is alarming situation. In Turkey, in 2003 a study
was conducted on medical students and physicians’ .According to study alcohol
is the most commonly used. Among other illicit drugs, cannabis is frequently
used. Benzodiazepine is commonly used sedative and hypnotics. Primary
consumption of smoking and drinking started in junior students. Use of other
illicit drugs is more common in senior students and benzodiazepines in physicians.
One of the reasons is anxiety in juniors and depression in senior students.
A cross-sectional study
was conducted in Riyadh medical colleges (Saudi Arabia) showed that regardless
of religion prohibition and strict law alcohol abuse is the most problem faced
by community. According to study alcohol is the most commonly used followed by
amphetamine, cannabis, heroin and cocaine. Reasons were mentioned as stress,
friend and colleagues’ pressure, curiosity and previous practicing of tobacco.
In Gulf Arab nationals’ alcohol, heroin and hashish are common.
Survey conducted on
Southern Iran medical colleges revealed that 30% of the student admitted the
use of substance once in life with the ratio of men being more than twice than
females. Most frequently abuse is of smoking (pipe) then alcohol and opium.
Another study conducted Rafsanjani universities showed that smoking (cigarette and
pipe), alcohol and sedatives are common among hostellites and divorced students
whereas opium is common among students who are living with their families.
Reasons are the same discussed in the previous studies. Amphetamine is common
as a prescribed and exams drug among students most of the students reported
that they experienced side effects after using this.
Many studies had been
conducted in India for many years about drug usage. Study conducted in north
India showed that most of the students mostly males admitted the usage of
substances mostly cigarette, alcohol, cannabis, bhang and tobacco. Reasons
declared are the same including social acceptances, parental occupation (doctor
and paramedical). Most of the students are aware of the side effects and mostly
students are suffered from side effects. Some of the students are tried to quit but cannot due to dependence.
Another study on Kerala colleges about alcohol usage showed that alcohol abuse
most common among students having financial issues, desperate thoughts and
suffered from sexual abuse, mostly students are non-Muslims .Students who are
using increased amount of alcohol suffered from attention deficit hyperactivity
In our Pakistan
students are also under the influence of drug addiction. Many researches are
conducted in colleges in recent years. In Lahore study was conducted in two
medical colleges showed that cigarette smoking was the most common followed by
alcohol, cannabis and amphetamine. Drug usage was common among males and
privates colleges than public college. Most of the students practiced before
entering the college. Karachi study conducted on private medical college
showing the same results. In Islamabad and Rawalpindi colleges including
medical research show that trend drug abuse is rising among students. Tobacco,
pipe smoking is the most common both in males and females. Trend of using hashish
and ecstasy is increasing day by day. Astounding thing is that most of the
students know that these things are prohibited in Islam and their parents are
unaware of their habit of using drugs. One of the reasons of increasing trend
is easily availability.
conducted in public medical college of Abbottabad showing almost the same
results as in other colleges of Pakistan. Tobacco smoking and chewing is common
because of social acceptances as compared to alcohol. Benzodiazepine commonly
used sedative along with amphetamine during exams. Prevalence of usage is more
common males and hostellites as compared to females and non- hostellites. Many others
studies are conducted on recreational drugs worldwide about their normalization,
individually harmful effects and their parental effects in pregnancy and infants.