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Resilience has widely been used in different disciplines such as environmental science (Holling, 1973), engineering (Hollnagel, Parie?s & Wreathall, 2011), psychology (Green & Humphrey, 2012), organizational studies and economics (Tama?sy & Revilla Diez, 2016). Notwithstanding its broadened use, there is no concurrence on the meaning and the scope of resilience.  (Manyena, 2006).   In a broad sense, resilience has  the ability to reshape and adapt to anticipate phenomenons, sudden shocks and unexpected phenomenons..  However, there are also diverse definitions and perspectives in the literature regarding this concept.  Some authors differentiate between anticipation (mitigation or resistance) and resilience. For them, resilience involves the capacity of a system to absorb disturbances, respond effectively and bounce back to the initial state as soon as possible (Longstaff, 2005; McEntire, 2005; Mileti, 1999; Vogus and Sutcliffe, 2007). However, other authors expand this definition by considering resilience to be a capacity generated from both proactive and reactive activities (Bruneau et al., 2003; Kahan et al., 2009; Brunsdon and Dalziell, 2005; Hollnagel et al.,2006; Westrum, 2006; Seville et al., 2008).  Regarding the first approach, Longstaff (2005) describes resilience as the “capacity of a system to absorb disturbance, undergo change, and still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks” (p. 15-16) and resistance as “the strategy that attempts to keep the danger away from the system in the first place” (p. 15). Therefore, resilience only refers to the reactive response while resistance is more focused on the proactive response. McEntire (2005) also uses the terms resistance and resilience to refer to proactive and reactive crisis responses, respectively. Mileti (1999) also considers resilience a reactive response, while referring to the preventive work as mitigation rather than resistance. In the same vein, Vogus and Sutcliffe (2007) define resilience as a process of building capabilities for recovering from unexpected events rather  than eliminating or avoiding them.

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