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Scientific literature is the main element
of all researches, as it is the only medium for stating the results of
scientific research. The basic purpose of scientific knowledge is to discover
something new or to build a new research on the basis of previous research. The
record of scientific research is available in printed or non-printed form in a
certain field i.e. Book or Journal.

The scientific literature
is categorized in to two basic categories; “Primary Literature” and the “Secondary

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Primary literature describes the “original research”; without any notes
or in other terms it refers to account of research which is carried out by an
individual or by a group of researchers which is published in a Peer-reviewed scientific journal. These
types of descriptions or reports commonly called “Research Papers/ Journal Papers” which are written in the
specific format and then submitted for publication.

Other than this, Primary
literature also includes Articles,
Dissertations, Thesis, Conference Proceeding papers, Video recording, Review
papers/reports, Manuscript, Extending abstracts and Patents.

Mostly the primary literature
is published in journals, but some of the researches are published as
dissertations or thesis, conference papers and reports. Let’s start to discuss
from Article first, what is actually
an article is? An article is
basically to explain the methods and results of original research performed by
the researcher, it can be surveys, experiments, interviews etc. but in all
situations the raw data have been gathered, analyzed by the researcher and then
propose conclusion which is standardized., on the other hand short
communication and rapid communication are also the parts of research article. Now
move on to dissertation, it is
comprehensive and detailed form of research where the researcher describes the
whole scenario in depth. Whereas, thesis is similar to dissertation. Another
important paper which is going to discussed that is conference proceeding
paper, it is presented in the international conferences, national conferences
and workshops are considered as primary literature to obtain feedback from the audience.
The video recording also use by the researchers for recording the experiments
accurately and verify their observations correctly. Moreover the review
paper/report highlights the practical aspects and also it examines the progress
in a certain topic, in short it summarizes the recent knowledge of a topic and
creates understanding and develop interest for the reader. As far as manuscript
is concerned it is unpublished version of a research, and also it is
handwritten or the original text by the researcher. An extending abstract
declares the abstract which is an extract of research means the summary of any
paper, mostly readers takes the whole idea after reading it .Last but not the
least, patents are very important for the researcher because it is an authority
or license from the government for the limited time period.

Scientific Literature


Primary scientific
literature has several characteristics:

1. “Materials and Methods”
section and “Results”

2. Use “We” or “I” to describe what was done.

3. Very
specific: mention particular places, organisms, etc.

Papers generally start with an introduction; an overview to set the stage for
the research.


Secondary literature consists on those publications which are based
on primary sources for collecting information. The purpose of this publication
is to summarizing and gathering knowledge in a specific area for other
researchers, so that they can utilize the information accordingly.

It includes textbooks, Internet, reviews, handbooks, Magazines,
Newspapers, Newsletters and manuals. The textbook provides the detailed introduction, identification of research
objectives, research questions, guidelines of research path, collecting
relevant information, interpreting data, analyzes data and develop
understanding with the context of research. The internet is widely use across the world as it is a big source of
gathering data and information, the secondary literature generally comes from
the past researches where the internet plays an important role for acquiring
previous papers. About the reviews,
it does not show an original research, only focuses on précising the
literature. The handbooks tell the
deep overview of research methods and combines both theories and methodologies
of qualitative and quantitative. The magazines
are also considered as secondary literature because the knowledge is taken from
different channels and combined at one place. Appearance wise it looks attractive
and may contains pictures and graphical presentations, general audience is
commonly use to read. Another important kind which possess secondary literature
that is newspapers, broadly use
around the world, mostly people choose to study newspaper and get information
from it, as it is supposed a good source of knowledge. Now turn to describe newsletters, it is basically in printed
form which covers the news of business activities and send through email to all
employees, customers and people who are interested in knowing. The last thing
which is also reflects the secondary literature is manuals, it is almost the
same of textbook, provides the relevant information to the researcher, it is
not only useful for the researchers also the common people can read and take
essential literature from it.

As we studied from every
aspect that the secondary literature gets from the previous papers which
contains large amount of information that can be very helpful for the newly
research papers. From the researcher’s point of view secondary literature is
the chief constituent in terms of, it highlights the purpose or aim of conducting
research, research objectives, research methodology, which type of analysis
tool will be used for testifying the results and verification of observations. Although
the secondary publications are not very much systematized as compare to primary
publications, however it is a mandatory requirement for the paper. Therefore, the
main objective of secondary literature is to gaining knowledge for the specific
area of interest.


It is
concluded that, for the research paper; literature plays a backbone, as it is
considered a main source of information which helps to researcher for getting
past knowledge and build a new research in the specific are of interest.

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