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Taekwondo is a Korean martial art, characterized by its
emphasis on head-height kicks, jumping and spinning kicks, and fast kicking
techniques. The name Taekwondo means the way of the foot and fist (Ronald A. Southwick). Various
martial artists combined the elements of Karate and Chinese martial arts with traditional
Korean martial arts traditions in the 1940s and 1950s. Taekwondo, usually was
thought by most people as just a way of fighting and as being a brutal sport.
People consider it brutal because of the kicks, punches, throws, and arm and wrist
locks as they usually are not open minded enough to see the way it benefits
people especially children. Although a majority of it includes fighting,
taekwondo also helps a person with self-confidence, self-defence and


eye is a sensory organ of sight. Our eyes are responsible for four-fifths of
all the information our brain receives. Various structures in the eye enable it
detects light and turns into an image that can be recognised by the brain.
Among the structures are cornea, lens, and retina. When the opponent image
light rays reflect off and enter the eyes through the cornea, the cornea bends,
or refracts, the rays that can pass through the round hole of the pupil. The
iris will the open and close, making the pupil bigger or smaller to adjust the
light entering the eye. The light rays then pass through the lens, which
changes shape, so it can further bend the rays and focus them on the retina.
The retina, which sits at the back of the eye is a thin layer of tissue that contains
millions of tiny light-sensing nerve cells. These nerve cells are called rods
and cones because of their distinct shapes. Cones are concentrated in the
centre of the retina, in an area called the macula. When there is bright light,
cones provide clear, sharp central vision and detect colours and fine details.
Rods are located outside the macula and extend all the way to the outer edge of
the retina. They provide peripheral or side vision. Rods also allow the eyes to
detect motion and help us see in dim light and at night. These cells in the
retina convert the light into electrical impulses. The optic nerve sends these
impulses to the brain, which produces an image (Ker Than. May 5,
2016, How
the Human Eye Works. Retrieved from

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The ear is one of the sensory organs that help us to hear. An
interesting point to note is that the ear not only helps in hearing but also
helps us to maintain the balance and equilibrium of our body. Without the ear,
we would not be able to balance our body with respect to the gravitational pull
of the earth. The inner ear is the part that helps us to balance our body. The
inner ear is involved in both the functions of hearing and balancing. Two structures of the inner ear help to maintain balance and
equilibrium. The three semi-circular canals that are interconnected and
positioned at right angles to each other just like a gyroscope. The vestibule
has the saccule and utricle that connects the semi-circular canals to the
cochlea. The semi-circular canals and the vestibule of the inner ear together
help to maintain the balance and equilibrium of the body. Extreme vibrations
can rapture the eardrum and ossicles causing hearing loss. Therefore,
protective gears should be wear during a sparring. (Nithya Venkat. September
30, 2016. How Does the Ear Help to Maintain Balance and Equilibrium of the
Body? Retrieved from


In terms of sparring, it is divided into one-step sparring and free
sparring. One-step sparring consists of two partners exercising pre-arranged,
attack and counterattack techniques. One-step sparring is the first step in
order to be able to do free sparring.  Practicing
one-step sparring requires a high level of concentration and cooperation on both
people. The attacker must perform each attack with proper execution and
consistent timing. The defender must react to the attack and counter attack
without hesitation. Techniques should be practiced extensively to a point where
they develop a sub-motor pattern that reacts out of instinct, without having to
stop and think. In free sparring, only light to medium contact is made.
Protective gear is worn in accordance with World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) standards.
Only yellow belts and above are eligible to participate in contact free sparring.
Hand and foot techniques are executed according to World Taekwondo Federation
rules in order to score points against your opponent. Although students are
attacking and defending with great speed and power, the emphasis is on
controlled techniques, skills application and safety. Each sparring round is
formally begun and ended with a bow of mutual respect. (Wallace Taylor, January

In the mechanism of side kicking, the first step is the athlete stands
in the L-stance forearm guarding block and the right foot forward. Both feet
should be slightly pointed inwards and the toes of the foot at the front should
be lined up with the heel of the back foot. Both knees are slightly bent. The
term ‘starting posture’ comprises information on the stance and the place where
the attempted attack starts. The athlete moves the back foot
forward in the direction of the intended impact. The hands are held up in a
guard. When the feet have touched the ground, the ankle joint tenses and the
athlete energetically pushes the right foot off the ground. As a result of the right foot take off the force pushes the foot
upwards. Further movement is facilitated by the muscles of the lower limb
taking control over the movement. Thus, the knee and hip joints are extended (J
Hum Kinet, 2011).


In the comparison of athlete versus the non-athletes, non-athletes tend
to get an injury faster than athletes as their muscles durability and
flexibility is not trained. Furthermore, it takes more time for the injury to
heal for non-athletic person. Most athletes, have a special recovery sessions.
That is how they are much stronger in the case of muscles durability.   Athletic types have better overall health and has less
percentage to develop certain diseases such as type 2 diabetes and
osteoporosis. Regular exercise boosts your immune system and lowers the risk of
serious health conditions such as cancer and heart disease. Taekwondo can also maintain
cholesterol levels and blood pressure.


People who are in good shape physically have greater aerobic capacity,
meaning their lungs and heart are able to provide more oxygen to muscles. They
have also learned how to breathe properly during exercise through training and
coaching. Oxygen diffusion rate of athletic person is higher because of their
lung capacity such as the rib cage enlargement and diaphragm contractions,
which decreases the pressure in lungs thus increase rate of diffusion. They
also do the proper warm up exercises before competing. As long as there is
enough oxygen, the body will not generate lactic acid to get the energy it
needs. Athletes also know how to pace themselves and not sprint more often than
necessary. Frequent sprinting will result in lactic acid build up.

Every person wants to feel safe. Every person wants to be able to
protect him or herself and loved ones. For this reason, many people turn to
martial arts. Taekwondo offers a person all the tools and techniques needed to
adequately protect themselves if needed. In addition to blocking, kicking and
striking techniques, students will learn grabs, throws, and techniques to free
themselves from an attacker (Wallace Taylor, January 2010). 

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