Taryn JacobsonNicholas FisherAnthropology 21022 January 2018Brazil has had a tumultuous history. Originally, Pedro Cabral had set out to find spices from India. Portugal was late in pursuing their exploration, due to the recency of the the Reconquista, as well as lack of access to Eastern trading networks. When Cabral discovered Brazil, it was thought to be a futile endeavor until Brazilwood was found to be plentiful. Brazilwood was a popular commodity because of its ability to be used as red dye. The discoveries of the Americas led to Portugal emerging as a world power due to the influx of wealth. However, there was competition in Brazil from the Dutch and French. To counteract, Portugal colonized in Brazil. At first, Jesuits were primarily responsible for the Indians, grouping them into aldeias (settlements), and teaching them how to read, write, and learn English trades. Some were converted to Catholicism, often through music. In return, the Indians taught the settlers how to prepare manioc, use hammocks, and taught them how to survive. Women were also used, leading to the creation of Mestizos. The majority of Indians died from disease or overwork, once enslavement began. Sugarcane proliferation drastically increased the amount of wealth for Portugal, and led to the importation of African slaves, leading to Triangular Trade in the Atlantic. African-Brazilians had a major impact on culture and music. Candomblé was used to carry on religious tradition. Capoeira involved elements of martial arts, and allowed for Slaves to secretly train in order to escape. Finally, when Slavery was abolished in 1888, there was an immense amount of polarization between races. Later, out of this polarization came the Samba, which emerged from Favelas and contributed to group solidarity and African Brazilian culture. When President Vargas (1930-1954) came into power, he took on an authoritarian role. At first, Vargas banned Samba for a time but then reversed his decision and commercialized Samba (with Carnival and Samba schools), making it a part of Brazil’s national identity. Samba helped to ease the separation and polarization between races. The Bossa Nova was the new music style that emerged in the late 50’s through the 60’s, and was more docile. However, times changed when the Brazil government was taken over by a Military regime. Howard Handelman, explains that military coups were not atypical for Brazil: “Though “moderating power” constantly tempted both military and civilians to stage a coup, until 1964 intervention was always short term: the military stepped in, restored civilian government, then withdrew.” (In Military Government and the Movement Toward Democracy in South America page 147). The military regime did not cease to lose power until 1985. The era of military dictatorship brought about fear, violence, unrest, and extreme censorship. Música Popular Brasileira (MPB) was a reflection of chaos and unrest with its blend of rural, electric, and acoustic instruments. MBPs audience was predominantly students. Artists in MBP became the voice of protest, often using metaphors to conceal the true messages behind their songs. In 1968, Brazil’s next president, Artur Costa E Silva, greatly increased censorship and attempted to stop any public opposition against the government, by establishing the fifth Institutional Act. The fifth Institutional Act suspended all legal opposition, gave the President board emergency powers, and official censorship was decreed (Brazil: Politics in a Patrimonial Society By Riordan Roett).When the military regime was overthrown, Brazilian music returned to its roots, as well as saw emergence of hard rock and rap. Chico Buarque was a one of the most influential and bold musicians in the MPB genre. He often spread messages of hope for the citizens of Brazil and anger against the regime within his songs, usually concealed to pass official censors. Buarque had the tendency to avoid the Westernization that was said to be found in MPB and focus back on the roots of Brazilian music. He did this as a way to better unify the people. Buarque wrote the song “Apesar de Você” (1970) after returning home to Brazil after a year in Italy due to exile. During the time the song was written, General Emilio Garrastazu Medici had taken power (1969-1974). Medici was an extremely violent ruler. During his time, its said that “…thousands of Brazilians were sent to prisons, and torture and killing by the state became routine.”(Torture in Brazil: A Shocking Report on the Pervasive Use of Torture By Joan Dassin). In his song “Apesar de Você”, Buarque critiques the government while also giving hope to his people for better days. “Tomorrow will be another day x 3/Today you’re the one who says/ Speak, you’re spoken/ No discussion, no/My people today walks/ Speaking from the side and looking at the ground/See?/ You who invented this state/Invented to invent/All darkness You who invented sin/Forgot to invent forgiveness/ In spite of you/Tomorrow will be another day/ I ask you where you will hide/ From the enormous euphoria?/How will you ban/When the rooster insists on singing?/New water sprouting/And we loving each other without stopping /When the time comes/This my suffering/I will charge with interest. Swear!/All this love repressed/This cry contained/This samba in the dark/You who invented sadness /Now have the fineness /Of “disinheriting” /You will pay, and it is doubled /Each tear rolled /In my heart /Even though you /tomorrow will be another day /Still paid to see /The garden bloom /Which you did not want /You will be bitter /Watching the day dawn /Without asking you leave /And I will die of laughter /And this day will come /Before what you think /In spite of you /In spite of you /Tomorrow will be another day /You will have to see /The morning reborn /And waste poetry/How will you explain /Seeing the sky clear, suddenly /Impunity? /How will drown /Our chorus to sing /In front/of you /In spite of you In spite of you /Tomorrow will be another day /You will get sick, etc and such” As aforementioned, Buarque wrote this song in a time where censorship and oppression by the government was prevalent. Even through the violence and strife, Buarque knew his people would eventually prevail with “In spite of you/ Tomorrow will be another day” which was basically saying that no matter how much the government oppresses, the people will prevail with a new energy and vigor “You will get sick, etc and such” points out that the military regime will not last.. “Today you’re the one who says/Speak, you’re spoken/No discussion, no” which refers to the extreme levels of censorship. “Speaking from the side and looking at the ground” refers to being scared of persecution. “This samba in the dark” refers to even though being repressed, people refuse to stop living and give up. Overall, the song highlights injustices done by the governments extreme censorship and even allude to some direct violence by the government, such as purges and torture by Medici, show by the Brazilians timidity in the song. However, the message is one of hope, and is directed toward to the Brazilian people, urging them to not give up and give into sorrow, instead looking towards a new day. Overall, Buarque was a voice of protest and hope in a time where it was needed most. Works CitedDassin, Joan. Torture in Brazil: A Shocking Report on the Pervasive Use of Torture by Brazilian Military Governments, 1964-1979. U of Texas, 1998. Print.Handelman, Howard, and Thomas G. Sanders. Military Government and the Movement toward Democracy in South America. Indiana UP, 1981. Print.Mancini, Renata. “Chico Buarque E a ótica Do Movimento.” Teresa 4-5 (2003): 144. Print.Roett, Riordan. Brazil Politics in a Patrimonial Society. Praeger, 1999. Print.