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The circulatory system is
vital and an essential part of the human anatomy and physiology. It provides
and maintains homeostasis to the whole life system of human body existent (cardio system help maintain homeostasis. 2010). Imagine a car engine with all its complexity and part,
and we just focus on one main and essential 
part of the car system which makes it as a car we all know about and
that is the engine or as we might alternatively call it the “heart of the
vehicle” the piston inside the engine move as combustion occurred as the result
of mixing of air and fuel ignited by spark plug in the chamber and a small
explosion in turn push the piston upward by force and this resulted in the
rotation and transferring of power to the crank shaft and this crank shaft,
turn the car wheel so that the car be able to move and serve it purpose as a
transportation machine for human use. By this analogy we can see why it is
called the “heart of the vehicle”, this mechanism and its ability to achieve
its purpose are identical to the human heart and its system which is unique and
special in every other way, and that how we created the system in a car and all
other machines. It is magnificently engineered and at the same time, it is
fascinating to learn and be able to understand such an existent and the purpose
of its creation. Physical activity cannot be separated from human life the
cardiovascular system is relatively connected to the physical activity. Fatigue
is an appearance respond to the duration of physical activity and this
implementation of physical activity is both directly and naturally the body
will respond to the quality and quantity of physical activity which is
undertaken. Such a response is part of human body demand to meet the nutritional
need in an effort to compensate the physical activity process and at the same
time to maintain the body condition in order to achieve equilibrium, it is also
called the optimum physiological response.

The change in frequency of
physical activity is base upon the pre and post physical activity and this can
be apparent depending on the stat of the individual optimum physical condition.
The physiological responses are proportional to the physical activity and the
responses are different from one individual to another individual. The
physiological response which is observed and showed the difference which is due
to the body condition during physical activity which the body are prepared by
doing routine exercise or body condition were trained or not trained. And
within this essay, I will discuss the finding and present the reason for the
difference between a trained athletes and a non-trained or non-athlete in
taekwondo base on its anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system.

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A simple observation can
be seen by just the blood pressure and heart rate check of pre and post test
from 2 different people with a background of athlete and non-athlete. The heart
rate and blood pressure are used to see the physiological response of the
physical activity. It is also to be clear that the returned to normal
physiological responses are also showing the ability of the body fulfilling the
optimum physical condition.  The reading
of an untrained person shows that blood pressure is pre-activity is 127/75 while
158/62 (systole/diastole) for post activity and the time required for the
untrained person to restore or recover his blood pressure to normal value is 7
minutes. On the other hand, the trained person reading show that his blood
pressure is for the pre-activity is 119/63 (systole/diastole) and post activity
shows the blood pressure of 141/68 and the time required for the trained person
to restore or recovered his blood pressure to normal value is 4 minutes. As we
all know that blood pressure is a pressure that existed when the heart contract
and relaxed in a cycle and this is called as the systole and diastole pressure.
Base on the statement above about the activity which is performed by the
trained and untrained person and there the physiological effect of the blood
pressure we can understand that there is a totally different on pressure
existed in both person. The heart as a pump has to pull out a stimulus
rhythmically. Under the ordinary circumstance, the heart rhythm is from the
pacemaker of the heart the sinoatrial node (SA node) located in the right
atrium. The SA node is responsible for the whole heart contraction function (it
act like a car engine Spark Plug). And there are several factors which can
affect the rhythm of the SA node including the drop in pressure, stimulation of
increasing temperature and other (Guyton
and Hall, 2006).

The increases in blood
pressure mainly the systole pressure during the post activity is caused by the
hormone epinephrine during a physical activity. This causes the strengthening
of the heart muscle contraction and also the effect of the blood vessels
widening (dilation), but the dilation does depend widely upon the person
condition. If a person has arteriosclerosis the effect of epinephrine is
limited on the dilation of the blood vessels, and the rises of blood pressure
can occur.   Also, the sweat that is
produced is also an effect on the blood plasma and this decreases the volume of
blood and in turn, blood pressure does not rise too excessively. The trained
person has lower blood pressure are also related to a stronger heart muscle and
valves which are functioning more effective due to his heart has been
accustomed to physical activity in taekwondo. His ability to returned to normal
blood pressure quicker compared to the untrained person is because of the
trained person blood vessels has a more elastic vessel wall and thus a trained
person has a higher elasticity blood vessels than an untrained person.

The blood pressure in
relation to the heartbeat is playing a vital role in physical activity and the
readiness and the condition of the body and the system of the person especially
the cardiovascular system. We have to remember that all is related to
maintaining a balance of haemostasis. As we all know the cardiac output is the
sum of the stroke volume and heartbeat and from this equation, we acquire the
total volume of blood pump by the heart per minute.  And as we can see the number of heartbeats
play an important role in producing the total cardiac output. It can easily put
as “physical activity increase heart rate and increase stroke volume, and in
turn, increase the cardiac output” (Fox.1993
Soekarman.1986 in Akmarawita. 2012). From what we can understand and from
test result of blood pressure and heart rate during resting stage that we
observe from two sample subject, AS1 and AS2 (which has an athletics lifestyle)
both are senior taekwondo student and from two other different subject, NS1 and
NS2 (no athletic lifestyle background) both which are from non physically active
individual, where it is found that the senior taekwondo student has a lower
number of heartbeat compare to the non physically active person. The data show
that AS1 register 60 heartbeat/min and AS2 register 69 heartbeat/min while for
NS1 register 82 beats/min and NS2 86 beat/min. We can conclude from the result
of the test subject of the 2 group of people show that a physically active
person has a lower heartbeat due to having a difference in anatomical structure
of the heart muscle and the explanation for this is that these group of people
has a more elastic and thicker muscle structure and this more effective heart
structure which allows the heart to relax and give stronger contraction during
each cardiac cycle, and this is made possible due to that they have been
trained to perform physical activity routinely. That the reason why athlete of
physically active person has a lower heart rate for pre and post physical
activity is due to the stronger and more optimize amount of blood that are able
to be contracted from the ventricle during it relaxing stage in the cardiac
cycle and because of this stronger and more effective amount of blood pump
toward the lungs or the head and to the rest of the body causes the
baroreceptor to receive the amount of stretch within the carotid sinus and the
aorta arch and this sends the signal to the cardio regulatory centre in medulla
oblongata which in turn interpreted the data it receives and gives the signal
of parasympathetic input to the sinoatrial node (SA node) to lower the amount
of heart beat. So in short due to the larger cardiac output of a physically
active person that causes more stretch on the baroreceptor, and this causes the
brain to increase the parasympathetic input and reduce the sympathetic input of
the autonomic nervous system and causes the SA node to reduce the heartbeat and
balance out the homeostasis within the system. This is the reason why the
athlete or physically active person has a lower resting heartbeat (can even
reach as low as 40 beats/min) compare to normal or non physically active
person. With considering all the difference in a scenario of physical activity
in which the body needs in order to regulate and maintain the blood pressure
and blood flow, it is simply amazing and impressive on how the cardiovascular
system able to accomplish all of that without even we thinking or noticing
about it.  

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