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The masonry is
the mostly used construction material in the world. The structures which are
built from individual units and bound together by mortar, we consider as the
‘masonry structures’. The most used materials as masonry are bricks, concrete
blocks, granite, stones, marbles, limestone, glass blocks and etc. Due to the
simplicity and the economy compared to the other methods, masonry structures
are well popular among the people. But a main issue regarding the masonry
structures is formation of cracks and defects. The most of the cracks and
defects are not indications of critical structural damages and remedies are
very simple methods. However in other hand a crack may be the first sign of a
severe defect in a structure. The formation of cracks can affect the aesthetic
view of the structure and furthermore it can affect stability and the
serviceability of the structure.

It is very
important to study about the reason for the formation of cracks or defects
before we provide any remedial method. The cracks are occurred due to the
developing of tensile stresses inside the masonry structure. There are numerous
reasons for forming cracks. There can be single reason or a combination of
several reasons. Some common reasons are listed below,

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·        
Thermal movements

·        
Moisture movements

·        
Chemical reaction of materials

·        
Structural instability

·        
Foundation settlements

·        
Excessive vibrations

The main
objective of this research is to explore and evaluate the available remedial
methods in the industry. There are many remedial methods are available in the
industry. But we have to use effective method by identifying the situation
correctly. Otherwise incorrect assessment can lead to expensive and unnecessary
remedial work. There are some remedial methods which are available in the
field,

·        
Injecting grout

·        
Injecting epoxy resin

·        
Applying flexible sealant

·        
Cutting out and replacement of damaged bricks

·        
Crack stitching system- using helical reinforcement bars

 

Though there are
many remedial methods, there is no any proper evaluation on the strength,
durability and cost comparison among these methods, therefore it is very
essential to do a proper evaluation on these methods to prevent any unnecessary
and costly remedial works. If we have a proper evaluation on these methods, it
will be useful to choose a proper remedial method according to the situation. This
research project will provide an overview of evaluation of different repairing methods
of cracks and defects in masonry structures.

 

 

1.    
Statement of the problem

 

 

 

There are
several cracks and defects repairing methods are available in the industry. But
there is still a doubt regarding using an appropriate method. Most of the time due
to the inappropriate methods, customers have to spend extra money and sometimes
they have to do the remedial works again due to the further developments of
those cracks and defects. The main reasons for these issues are lack of
awareness about these methods and not carrying out a proper investigation to
identify the causes for the crack or defect Therefore the people have to
address following questions before they choose a method.

1.     
Is this the best suitable method for this issue?

2.     
Is the strength adequate after doing the
remedial work?

3.     
Is this method economical?

4.     
Does this method affect to the aesthetic
appearance of the structure?

5.     
Is this method durable?

Therefore it is
very important to have a proper evaluation on remedial methods. Then the people
or other parties can easily study about these evaluations and find out the best
suitable method for their situation.

 

 

 

 

2.    
Significance of the research

1.      
 

 

 

By evaluating these remedial
methods under various factors, we can identify the limitations, pros and cons,
cost, strength, availability in local market and many details about these methods.
Therefore it will be very useful to take engineering decisions about the
repairing methods and it will make the remedial works more economical and
efficient. The result of this study will be valuable to the industry
practitioners as well as related parties in using of various remedial works.

 

 

3.    
Scope and Limitations of the study

1.      
 

 

The remedial methods of
cracks and defects in masonry structures are not limited only to the surface crack
repairing methods, sometime we have to improve the underlying soil layers or
develop the foundations to control the propagation of cracks and defects. But In
this research, the surface repairing methods will be mainly considered.

By considering allocated
time, it will be impossible to carry out all the remedial works in a laboratory
and Most of the remedial works are very expensive methods, therefore I have to
get the maximum use of provided budget. Therefore I have to carry out some
selected methods and evaluate them.

 

4.    
Objectives of the research

1.      
 

 

The objective of
this research project is to provide an overview of evaluation of different
repairing methods of cracks and defects in masonry structures. Furthermore this research
has the following sub-objectives,

·        
To review current industry practices in regards to the
remedial works.

·        
To provide a comprehensive review of Cost, Strength,
Durability and other relevant aspects in various remedial methods.

·        
To do a comparison between available remedial methods.

 

 

 

 

5.    
Proposed Methodology

·        
A
thorough literature review will be carried out in order to find the required
information about the research.

·        
Various
old and latest remedial methods will be studied and details will be collected.

·        
Existing
remedial methods will be studied by visiting sites and information will be
collected.

·        
The
selected remedial works will be carried out in the laboratory and required
properties will be identified.

·        
An
evaluation will be done by using collected information.

·        
Conclusion
will be developed and the final report will be finalized.

 

 

6.    
Work Plan

 

 

Task

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sap

Oct

Nov

literature review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Studying about old
and latest remedial methods

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Site visiting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sCarrying out the
remedial works in the laboratory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doing the
evaluation using collected data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Developing the
conclusion and finalizing the final report

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7.     Estimated
cost built up

 

 

 

Quantity

Cost/unit (Rs)

Total Cost (Rs)

Materials and chemicals:

 

 

 

Cement

1 packet (50kg)

900

900

Bricks

100

15

1500

Sand

 

500

500

Crack injecting mortar

1

5000

5000

Epoxy materials

1

3000

3000

Flexible sealants

1

3000

3000

Helical
reinforcement bars

6

500

3000

Equipment

 

 

 

Injecting pump (Hire)

1

1000

1000

Grinder (Hire)

1

1000

1000

Transport

 

 

 

Transport expense

 

1000

1000

Other cost

 

1000

1000

Total cost

 

 

20900

 

 

8.     Reference

·        
John, F.S.P. (1983) .Understanding
cracks in houses. Structural Survey, 1(1),     

37-45. https://doi.org/10.1108/eb006146

 

·        
Sholihin,
Mukahar, Sukiman, M. (2013). Investigation on wall crack damage and its    

proposed repair method
(Report no.54(2013) 165-175 ). Universitas sebelas Maret, Indonesia: Department
of Civil Engineering.

 

·        
Michael,
H. (1991) .The repair and maintenance of brickwork. Structural
Survey, 9(2),

153-160. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000003248

 

 

·        
Roger W. Johnson, (2002). The
significance of cracks in low?rise
buildings. Structural Survey, 20(5), 155-161. https://doi.org/10.1108/02630800210456805

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