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ideologies that percolated in the Philippines are known to be the cause of the
rise of Nationalism among the Filipino people. These dogma’s introduce to us
are considered to be the contributing factor that inspirited the people to
clamor the government for change. The spread of communism itself in Asia, and
the lingering effects of wars somehow triggered the adaption and acceptance of
these foreign ideologies. The introduction of these doctrines created change,
through series of attempts that attack the system which was then viewed as unfair.
Peasants then grasp the ideology for the relief and hope, that maybe; these
could be their chance to enact change and the opportunity to gain access into
the privileges they were deprived to have.

promise of classless society has been coined to Communism, backed up by the
Marxist ideology.1
The doctrines provisions entice the populace that it reaches to the point that
they engage into arm confrontation with the government in order to effect the
change they sought. The desperate move then escalated the problem, because they
founded a group or movement which aims to transform the system and eradicate
the class distinction.2  The interference of United States in the
countries affairs, the Japanese occupation and the injustices committed by the
government buttressed their cause for change. The movement wanted to gain
liberty from United States in terms of its intervention politically and

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 Capitalism itself serves as a barrier to its
aims, a counter pat of communist ideology. It is a Profit-based system, which
leaves the workers with few incentives and owners much gain. The relationship
among the workers and owners is not well established because most of the time
the focus is on its profits. Capitalist is driven by profits, without realizing
that gains won’t be met if workers are omitted in the picture, workers are
often exploited since they are only paid through their labors regardless of the
type or kind of work, and commonly waged in minimum bases.

occurrences of insurgency among the Filipino are commonly attributed or linked
to Marxist ideologies. The expression of nationalism is fueled by these
doctrines wherein peasants choose to raise arms against the government for they
think that the privileges itself is confined only to the people who belong in
the higher strata of social echelon. Accordingly, Marxism defined as “a
theory in which class struggle is a central element in the analysis of social
change in Western societies”.3 These entails that the Marxist ideology
gives emphasis to the less fortunate people, or those who belong to the lowest
class or peasants. The society is impaired due to the division of people that
has been linked to the lingering effects of custom-based belief which was then carried
out to ages known as Social Stratification4.
The distinction itself is considered as one of the contributing factors to the
rise of nationalism, which is known as class struggle.

The society is comprised mostly by peasants, yet
their voices remained unheard. The miserable plights of peasants eking out a living
to suffice their family’s hungry stomach, and the slow response of government
to their condition were then misconstrued by them, making them feel neglected
and alienated.  The atrocities that
transpired during the regime of President Ferdinand Marcos even distance the
populace towards the government, paved to the formation of Communist Party of
the Philippines (CCP) in 1968.5
Constant call for changed was then showed through rallies and social
disobedience. Later that year the New People’s (NPA) army was then founded
yielding to the same ideology which made them an armed wing of CCP.6
New People’s Army is composed mostly of peasants because of their accessibility,
due to their enticement of its ideology; they are among the least suspected in
the community and lastly the familiarity of the terrains. Most of them, attack
sporadically the government troops, to show that they are capable of inflicting
harm to the government. Peasants are often called the powerless people yet they
are the most important sector in the social echelon because without them the
nation will be destabilized due to the lack of manpower. They play vital role
in the society but their efforts are not even recognized and living in extreme
poverty. The lack of support from the government is always been the sentiments
of these people, so we can’t blame them why they opt to change sides and go
against the government. These peasants are armed with guns and inhabits in far
flung villages or mountains away from their families; and life they used to
have.  Which clearly connotes that they
are desperate and aggressive enough for change, their intolerance of the system
is shown through a series of attacks. The peasants who used to have a simple
life in rice fields are now known or branded as bandits and terrorist because
of the hostilities they have done towards the government and the populace. There
rendezvous were away from the communities if possible and meetings are often
clandestine to avoid being captured by the person in authorities’.

The doctrines become the source of knowledge that
awakened the latent consciousness of the people. Jose Maria Sison, a well-known
lawyer who initiated the creation of “Kabataang Makabayan” which aims to
integrate the youth into the spectrum, encourages the young ones to participate
in the affairs of the government.7
Sison advocates the participation of the youth and wanted them to partake in
its struggle for liberation towards the elite ruling in the government and end
the despotic regime of the Marcoses. As a University professor it is not hard
for him to do so, and the Universities becomes the bastion of rallies and
demonstration. The first quarter storm of the 1970 marked heavily by a series
of youth active demonstrations, which often resulted to atrocities within the
two parties.8 The storm was
characterized as a dilemma because of the bloodshed, wherein the youths are being
shot while demonstrating in order to stop them from achieving their cause and
to show to the protesters that they will not hesitate to do the same thing to
them, or to discourage them from doing such things. But, it only showed them
that the government doesn’t care of the welfare of its people particularly the

The expression of nationalism among peasant is
mainly associated with the land they are tilling, if they own it or they are
just working on it. Accordingly, the landless peasants are often expressing
their nationalism in more hostile way due to the experiences they have and the
poor living condition they are in. While those who worked in a privately owned
land is quite different because they posed a debt of gratitude towards their
land owners for the help they have extended into their workers. The communist
leaders often find the peasants as subject of the proliferation of these
ideologies, taking advantage of their condition and lack of education. What
they are trying to instill into the minds of the peasants is the promise of
classless society wherein everyone gets to enjoy the privileges and putting an
end to poverty. The promise of improved lifestyle and affluence, perhaps serve
as the moving force to gain such support from the masses. The expression of
nationalism is greatly shown through hostility because they think it would be
the best thing to do in order to advance the change they are aspiring. The
mobilization of peasantry among the revolution often denotes a characteristic
of nationalism although it is exhibited through other means. It is still
considered as a form of nationalism because the endeavors for liberation from
poverty, neo-colonialism of Americas and to stop the ruling elite’s trend in
the government were their primary goal.

Communism threat started when Russia takes heed to
the ideologies of Karl Marx, revolts started to take place spearheaded by
Vladimir Lenin, followed by his successors Joseph Stalin wherein his primary
purpose is to utilize the lands and distribute it to the peasants and as well
as industrialization.9
Even the Japanese occupation posed a certain threat, adaptation of China to the
communist doctrines and the war in Vietnam are among the few of the factors or
reasons that cause the spread of communist ideology in Asia particularly in the
Philippines.  The utilization of manpower
among the insurgent group during the time of Marcos are also considered to be
the cause, yet, we can also take a look from the abuses committed during his
regime which also fueled the masses to take part to the movements. The classifications
of people are among the problem which could also be considered since; it
created a wide gap among the elites and of those who belong in the lower
strata. Disparities are being looked into, through this; we could infer in
totality that the flaws are being recognized without acknowledging the likeness
or similarities.

             The Conrado Balweg’s uprising in Abra; a
province in Northern Philippines has something to do with the present condition
of his kin’s. Balweg is a member of a minority tribe in Abra, who struggled to
keep up with the constant pressure from the majority group and poverty. He is a
member of a peasant class in which he manages to enroll himself into seminary
and pursued to become a priest.10
He then turn away from his vow and move to the mountains and joined the
communist group in his aims to stop the injustices and inequity committed by
the government towards these powerless people. The concept that he adheres is
that only few are enjoying the privileges that must have been supposedly be
enjoyed by all.  During his days in the convent
he actively participated in the demonstration particularly during the first
quarter storm, clamoring the government for change. He is one of the few examples
of “Revolutionary Clergy” as what John N. Schumacher describes. The arm
confrontation is one of the major expressions of his nationalism for he
believes “the deprived and the
oppressed inevitably demand the purposeful and resolute exercise of
counter-violence if justice is to be served and practiced.”11
The need of social justice is what makes him change his mind since oppression
is evident among the society wherein only those who have much can get the
justice that must be served to all.

The mobilization of this communist group the
CPP-NPA’s is due to their principal objective that is to change our governmental
system into Socialism.12
These aspiration is often neglected by many particularly the elites since it
will cripple their businesses, considering the fact that they are privileged
and much of the gains circulate within these privileged few. The communist
group wanted to do away with this system and free the people from the curse and
shackles of poverty. They see socialism as the only solution of the lingering
problem posed by too much adherence to western thoughts such as capitalism and
its progenitor. They see the presence of United States as a threat to our
sovereignty because of its economic policies which only exhorts us and left us
only with residue of its profits or gains. Accordingly, “Nationalism
demands both economic and political independence.
It resists and condemns foreign intervention in our internal affairs as well as
in the conduct of our foreign policy. The US bases are an unwarranted derogation
of our sovereignty and should be dismantles.”13 The presence of US bases would definitely mean we
are subject to annihilation. The United States interference in our internal
affairs jeopardizes our sovereignty, and the communist group wanted to oust
them from our lands. The economy itself is being monopolized by foreign
corporations and our own businesses lack support from our government. The
policies are mostly in favor to foreign investors to attract more of them in
our country. The export based system could also means that most of the goods we
are exporting abroad are of good qualities, while are people are suffering from
malnutrition because of poverty. The Free Trade policy then was contradicted
also by these movements since; our country will have little benefits from it.

The expression of peasant nationalisms is affected
by the doctrines introduced to them.14
They are enticed of its provisions and promises that it is the solution to the
problem they are experiencing. It will put an end to poverty and can alleviate
their living. More than that, the expression itself is considered to be harsh
by some because they resort into arm confrontation rather than peaceful means,
but it is still nationalism because their aspiration for is change and freedom
of our land from the shackles of the foreigners, and to liberate us from foreign
intervention. Nationalism is showed in many ways and its expression depends
upon how the person shows it. We all have the right to decide what will be the
outcome of our future and it also depends on our hands what will be the course
of tomorrow. As a nationalist one must have a prior knowledge of its history in
order to understand the true essence of nationalism. But it doesn’t necessarily
mean that we have to look back and understand everything, in order to consider
our actions as nationalism. In simplest sense, nationalism is aspiring for
change wherein the primary benefactor is the nation, such as safeguarding one’s
sovereignty from external forces, buying one’s product and paying homage to the
symbol of independence, our national anthem and flag. Nationalism is expressed
in many ways but still yields to the same meaning, and it is the welfare of
one’s nation. Ergo, dogma’s and doctrine’s precept influence the expression of
nationalism among the peasants.

Karl Marx and The Rise of Communism.…/Karl%20Marx%20Communism101.pdf,retrievedonDecember07,2017

2 Alfredo
B. Saulo, Communism in the Philippines: An Introduction (Quezon City: Ateneo de
Manila University Press, 2002), 228


4  Harold R. Kerbo, 2002, Social Stratification
and Inequality: New York : McGraw-Hill Education

Jose Maria Sison. (1989). The Philippine Revolution: The Leaders View. New
York: Taylor & Francis, pp. 41-46.

Patricio N. Abinales, Filipino Communism and the Specter of Communist

Francis Domingo, 2013, Explaining the Sustainability of the Communist Party of
the Philippines-New People’s Army, Small Wars Journal.

8 Gregg
R. Jones, Red Revolution: Inside the Philippine Guerrilla Movement (Boulder,
Colorado: West view Press, 1989), pp. 5-6.



Bert M. Drona, 2006, God and Revolution-Fr. Condrado Balweg, SVD.

Peter Chalk, Angel Rabasa and others The Evolving Terrorist threat in Southeast
Asia: A Net Assessment.(Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation, 2009), p.




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