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The smart phones, wireless sensor
networks are called as embedded devices and they use web services and the idea
is not new 5,6.The microcontroller or microprocessor used to implement the
smart devices ,but they use  appropriately large computing power (7,8 .When
we use FPGA it helps in smart devices to have economical battery backup 9.The
processing capabilities of sensor nodes are limited and depend on microcontrollers
10,FPGAs can play an efficient  role.

Nowadays, FPGAs provide optimized platforms in energy
consumption that are able to run on ultra-low-power The IGLOO nano evaluation
board enables us to measure power consumption. The state-of-the-art FPGAs having
 powerful processing capabilities to
a typical sensor node with a reduced energy consumption,
based on ASIC arithmetic components like high speed adders and multipliers.
Hence, the FPGAs can provide strong cryptography capabilities and high-speed
acceleration of algorithms like routing, image processing and compression, and
image processing. The FPGA architecture has the efficiency to implement
any logic function or high end soft processors 11). Making IoT devices power
efficient, manage incompatible interfaces, and contributing a processing growth
path to handle the unavoidable rise in device performance requirements. This
significant implementation challenges can be addressed by An FPGA based design
approach.

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It is not an
easy task to achieve energy efficiency for IoT devices that can run for years
on a single battery. It is necessary to use low power components and effective
power systems. This is possible if the changes at both the silicon level and
architectural level. The main processor, the processor core in the wireless
module, the display will consume significant power .Unique approaches must be
employed in IoT terminals to minimize the power profile.

 

The aim of this paper is to focuses on the
intersection between IoT and the VLSI systems required to build IoT systems. We
need to develop a new generation of Very large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI)
devices for internet of Things (IoT) nodes and hubs. IoT is pushing VLSI
systems design in a completely new direction to develop a new generation of ICs
which are small and extremely inexpensive rather than building the most complex
and biggest chips. IoT devices will require advances in packaging, designing
circuit, low power design, security and system architectures.

The important
design challenges of IoT are power efficiency, incompatible interferences and
compatibility with new processors. These design constraints can be addressed
with a Field Programmable gate array (FPGA).FPGA provide smooth interface with
the outside world, low power solutions and lowest latency which are ideal for
IoT applications. FPGA can connect with storage devices such as memories which
also allow for Bluetooth communication, Ethernet and wireless components. Most
of the IoT applications need a memory, networking chip such as BLE, Wifi, Zigbee,
processor core and a controller to actuate external devices. An FPGA can
interact with memory/storage devices through serialiser/deserialiser interfaces
(SERDES)12.FPGA take HTTP request packet received from a wireless Ethernet
component and decode its request, fetch/get required information from memory
and send back the requested result back through the Ethernet devices.The FPGA
can be a replacement for the processor core in the IoT .If we require higher
level of processing ,the FPGA can be coupled with Advanced RISC Machines (ARM)
processors to get advantage of high level software functions such as web
servers. FPGA is a programmable special purpose
processors. It can handle signals at its input pins, process this signals and
send the signals on its output pins.

 

The sensor nodes
may rely on FPGAs, either based upon standalone platforms or as a combination
of FPGA and microcontroller. The low power optimized FPGAs can improve the
computation of several types of algorithms in terms of power consumption and
speed if we compare with the microcontrollers of commercial sensor nodes.
Moreover the architectures based on the combination of microcontrollers and
FPGA can play a major role in the future of sensor networks. They show outstanding
results in the processing capabilities like strong cryptography, data compression
13, and self-testing. 14

 

                                                                                                                                                 
I.     SMART
SENSORS

 

Figure 1.
The Fundamental Components of the Internet of Things (IoT) Enabled Smart
Sensing Device

 

A smart sensor is “smart” because it has onboard signal and
data-processing capabilities. Figure 1 shows the Fundamental Components of the
Internet of Things (IoT) Enabled Smart Sensing Device.  It has a microprocessor that conditions the
signals before transmitting to the control network. It filters out unwanted
noise which received during sensing and compensates for any kind of errors
before the data is send. Immediate alerts on their own are produced by some
sensors when critical limits are reached because these sensors are designed
custom programmed. Some Sensors are often integrate VLSI technology and MEMS
devices to optimize integration and reduce cost

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