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The term of municipality solid waste is
a broad term that contains the useless or unwanted solid materials produced
from commercial, residential and industrial activities in a specific area.
Solid waste can be classified according to its origin (industrial, domestic,
commercial, construction and institutional), according to its potential hazard
(non-toxic, toxic, radioactive, infectious, flammable, etc.), as well as
according to solid waste contents (organic material, metal, glass, plastic
paper, etc.) (Femi and Oluwole, 2013)., Improving standards of living, increasing
affluence increasing of population growth rates, together with increasing
levels of industrial and commercial activities in urban areas around the world,
are the main causes for a significant increase in quantities of waste
production. More effective disposal of solid waste is necessary; even in
countries that burn or recycle a large share of their waste and therefore treatment
of ashes resulting from burning solid waste remains an issue (Brockerhoff,
2000; Proske et al., 2005). Improper solid waste management causes soil, air and
water contamination and is often the result of a lack of financial resources.
The problem of municipality solid waste is very serious in third-world
countries, where 80% of the world population lives and this often relates to a
lack of financial resources (Al-Ansari, 2013). Waste-related diseases are the
main cause for the loss of 10% of each person’s productive life. The present
day municipal solid waste (MSW) generated reaches 277 million tonnes per year
(United Nations, 2010). Low and middle-income countries generate (12.2% and
57.1% )of that waste, while high income countries generate (30.7%) (United
Nations, 2010). This figure is expected to increase to 677 million tonnes in
2025. The percentage of solid waste generated in high income countries will be (12.7%),
while it will be (16.4% and 70.9 %) in middle and low income countries, respectively
(United Nations, 2010). Management of MSW involves several processes, including
reducing quantities of waste, reusing, recycling and recovering energy, as well
as the incineration and burial of waste in landfills (Moeinaddini et al.,
2010).

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