The term Internet of Things was coined by British technology pioneer, Kevin Ashton in 1999 (source: http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?4986), where he defined it as physical obejcts being connected to each other over a network through ubiquituous computing.
Presently, internet can be distinguished as Internet of People, a medium through which humans communicate with each other over a network and Internet of Things, which connects machines and data with people and with each other.
Gartner defines Internet of Things as, “the network of physical objects that contain embedded technology to communicate and sense or interact with their internal states or the external environment.” (source: https://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/internet-of-things/)
In other words, several electronic and mechanical products and systems capable of performing logic based operations autonomously with minimum human intervention and possessing the capabilities to communicate with the other products, machines, systems or humans over public or dedicated wired and wireless network combine to form Internet of Things.
Every product, asset, or a machine is an entity or a ‘thing’ in the IoT ecosystem and a connection of these ‘things’ with each other or with the human user or a combination of both over a network is what is known as the Internet of Things.
Figure 2.3: Internet of Things ecosystem (Style Template: IAS_FigureCaption)
To provide connectivity to the ‘things’ in the IoT ecosystem, especially for M2M communication it is imperative that the communication protocols used for an IoT and IIoT systems are light-weight, conserves power and can transfer the data securely. It is also important to note that owing to the limited availability of the IPV4 protocol addresses, it will be the IPV6 protocol which is expected to lead the M2M communication.
The most common connectivity enabling technologies can be categorized as
· Wired: Includes Ethernet, MoCA and PLC
· Long–range Wireless: LPWAN, VSAT and Long-range WiFi
· Medium-range Wireless: HaLOW and LTE Advanced
· Short-range Wireless: Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Li-Fi, NFC, RFID, QR and Bar Codes etc.