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The Extended EssaySubject: HistoryTopic: The disintegration of Bosnia from YugoslaviaResearch question: To what extent was Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia the result of nationalism?Personal code:Total word count:WordsContents page:Introduction: Main body:IntroductionThe topic for this extended essay is the disintegration of YugoslaviaThe research question is: To what extent was Bosnian independence from Yugoslavia the result of serbian nationalism?To what extent was “geography” the main reason for the growth of serbian nationalism that led to the independence of Bosnia from Yugoslavia?What factors enabled nationalism to arise in Yugoslavia A method used to investigate the topic of this essay is cross referencing.  It is essential in order to reflect an impartial stand on the topic. The variety of sources selected should represent different perspectives of the situation so that this essay is not prejudiced towards one side of the conflict. Therefore the use of different sources such as academic books, websites, documentaries is clearly important. 6th April 1992 the president of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Alija Izetbegovi?, declared the independence of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). This action was the result of many different events amounting to the breakup from Yugoslavia as it even later on failed to exist as five from its six different republics: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro and Macedonia strived for independence from the Serbian dominated federal government of Yugoslavia. The conflict, focussing at the situation in Bosnia, escalated quickly, resulting in a brutal war from 1992 between the Army of republika srpska and the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, until the dayton agreement was confirmed on the 14th decembre 1995, resulting in a ceasefire that is still obtained until the process of writing this essay.The former Yugoslavia was a socialist country created after german occupation in world war two and a brutal civil war which resulted in the victory of the partisan forces led by Marshal Tito. The disintegration of Yugoslavia is very important as those events were the start of a period of escalating tension resulting in war crimes, such as the worst crime in europe after the second world war in srebrenica 1995 by bosnian serbian troops on bosnian muslims. The fact that some of them are not resolved until today contributes to the argument that the ceasefire is more like a frozen conflict. This is a fundamental reason why some of the ideology which emerged in the conflict is still spreading today. Clearly alarming to most of us is that it has lately become more active again.Understanding the reasons for the breakup is therefore clearly important.Reliable newspapers such as “The guardian or The New York” times are good sources to use as they have the task of informing millions of people. However just as any other newspaper, they also need to sell them. In order to gain greater revenue sometimes they tend to sensationalise topics.The main BodyLong Term reasons In order to understand why nationalism could arise within Bosnia and Herzegovina. We need to get a basic idea about the ethnic groups in the bosnian population first. Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats, those are the three main ethnic groups present in Bosnia. Those are all more or less equally present in Bosnia as also its own constitution states that, if compared to each other,  none of those ethnic groups can be considered as a minority. The reasons for this go back to the 15th century when the Ottoman Empire has ruled over Bosnia. Throughout its history the land has often been influenced by stronger regional powers which consequently led to Bosnia and Herzegovina’s religious and ethnic mix. In difficult times there was therefore bound to be ethnic conflicts.In addition Bosnia’s geological position is also very significant considering the long term reasons for its breakup. As Bosnia and Herzegovina is located between Serbia and Croatia, those powers are more enabled to military intervene in conflicts as those countries are direct neighbours.It is therefore possible to argue that Bosnia’s multi ethnic population in combination with its geological position are long term reason for bosnian independence from Yugoslavia.Counter ArgumentHowever it is far too easy to conclude that the breakup of Yugoslavia and the resulting war were caused by hatred between the 3 ethnic groups that went back for centuries as those three different ethnic groups have lived peacefully among each other for hundreds of years. Often in the same towns and villages. The mass conversion of big parts of the bosnian population happened mainly due to economical benefits during the influence of the Ottoman Empire and not by any force. Naturally occuring nationalism within the country has therefore nothing to d”The first major programmatic document, ?Homogeneous Serbia?, dates from as early as 30 June 1941″. “For 35 years Tito held Yugoslavia’s 6 republics together. Any hint of nationalism from Serbs, Croats, Muslims, Macedonian or Slovenes was crushed.”1980s congress der kommunistivhen partei jugoslaviensUnabhängigkeit Slowenien dann Kroatien ? Beispiel Milosivic wollte alle domierenLegitime UnabhängigkeitVon serben verteidigt Stjepan Mesi? the former president of the SFRY states that since in Yugoslavia fighting broke out, it was basically a war of Greater Serbia.Bosnian Croats and Bosnian muslim could not identify to the serbian dominated Yugoslavia. Therefore nationalism key issue Radovan Karadži?, leader of the Bosnian Serbs, said “You Muslims aren’t ready for war – you could face extinction”However nationalism is defined as a policy of independence or fanatical patriotism and associated with the strong identification to a country and not a religion.Counter argument (racists instead of nationalists) Define nationalism ? how can they be nationalists if the country does not exist.Religion ? fighting for their religion not their nation

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