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This essay will evaluate the effectiveness of legal and non- legal responses in the protection of human rights. Human rights refers to the moral behaviour an individual is entitled to within societies norms in which is often enforced by the law.Human trafficking is the physical movement of individuals across and within borders through force, while slavery includes manual forced labour with pain inflicted in some cases. Although slavery in the past was brutal,  modern day slavery shows no signs of going away anytime soon and the reason for this is because of the Developing countries that do not have the resources to stop these transnational crimes that occur in the countries,.Human trafficking abuses domestic rights and the international response to this has been effective throughout the years. ”Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of life” this refers to human rights in terms of everyone having the same amount of equal freedom, yet slavery does not allow individuals to have that freedom. The united states first began monitoring human trafficking in 1994 and from then on the united states has had a significant role in controlling human trafficking worldwide, in 2000 the united states passed the trafficking victims protection act, this was when the office to monitor and combat trafficking came into action. Human trafficking occurs among other reasons due to its profitability, which means that by selling an individual they can obtain money. When it comes to human trafficking, the media is a non legal response because it is not as effective, for example the current issue in Libya according to Raja Razek and Lauren Said-Moorhouse in the article ”Where is the world?: Libya responds to outrage over slave auctions”, it states that people are being auctioned off and are being used as slaves, in this article Libya claimed that ”more support is required from the global community to tackle the issue” instituting that the media is used to display the problems occurring in Libya, although the media raises awareness, legal responses cannot be fixed. Human trafficking is an abusive act in relations to the human rights, as refugee Libyans are forced in extreme labour, this is a form of ‘dehumanization’. According to the source ‘Migrants for sale: Slave trade in Libya’ it reports that every week hundreds of African refugees are being ”sold, being held for ransom, used as forced labour or for sexual exploitation”, the UN backed-government conducted investigations to address the issue. Furthermore, Leonard Doyle from the International Organization for Migration mentioned ”There is an international responsibility to help … What is particularly important now is that this issue is reaching global attention,” and stresses that human trafficking does not only happen in undeveloped countries but also developed. The media can only in ways pressure the government into taking immediate action based off the complaints of the wide population worldwide, the media is also an opinionated tool meaning that everyone is going to have their own opinions in the whole matter and not everyone opinion will be correct, some may collide and that will create a controversy which will lead to the government having to take serious actions yet again, all opinions will be based on the same occurring situations. International responses have failed to adequately promote and publicize human rights in both major and minor issues due to countries dissociating to treaties, portrayal of human rights in media and absence of security council action.Universal Declaration of Human Rights came into existence after the world war two, there are different various of international responses that have certain roles to play and these include : the united nations, the UN security council action, intergovernmental organisations, courts, tribunals, independent statutory authorities, media and non – governmental organisations.Over the years human rights has evolved through different campaigns, thus unities international treaties leading to formal declaration. the promotion and enforcement would be as effective without international responses. An organisation that has really helped in promoting and enforcing human rights is the United Nations, the United nations was created through the united nations charter in 1945. In the United nations charter there is an article 1 which expresses the five main purposes of the united nations and one in particular helps to promote and enforce human rights. There are many organisations both internationally and domestically that aim to put a stop to the causes and effects of human trafficking around the world.  The legal system portrays human trafficking as illegal and forbidden in Australia but in other countries it is not even acknowledge. Some countries do absolutely nothing about human trafficking but in countries like America and Australia if you are caught involved in it you will be sent to jail for life or sometimes less. Over the years the legal response to human trafficking and slavery has been active in putting punishment in place for example in 2005  Ms Wei tang a thai woman was charged with possessingslavery, between august 2002 and may 2003 a thai woman had been recruiting women to be sex workers  , each woman incurred a debt of between $40,000 – $45,000 which was to accommodate for all their expenses while staying in Australia, ms Tang controlled when and where the woman worked sometimes they would be made to work seven days a week, on the 31 may 2003 the actions of ms wei tang came to light when the brothel was raided and ms tang, mr paul pick and one other were arrested, ms Tang was sentenced to ten years of imprisonment with a non- parole period of six years, in the case of ms Tang the legal response was very much effective as ms Tang was sentenced to ten years of imprisonment. ”Sex slavery: first woman jailed” ”The first person in Australia to be found guilty by a jury of possessing sex slaves has been jailed for 10 years.” ms wei tang was the first person in Australia to have been found guilty of possessing sex slaves which led to her ten year jail sentence. the effectiveness response are that although some countries/states are not yet developed to the point of being able to do much to help, the complaints that are made against the issues are what get the attention of the government’s as well as the use of the media to be able to get the response that is needed from the legal system. Domestic response have improved over the years for example the Australian established a human trafficking plan in 2003 and since then has put in millions into tackling the issues. As Well as additional measures that have been introduced by the australian government under the ”2004 commonwealth plan to eradicate trafficking in persons”. All offences of human trafficking and slavery can add up to a penalty of 25 years imprisonment according to divisions 270 and 271 of the criminal code act 1995.Slavery has been known to have been around for many years now although there have been cases such as the Abolition of slavery act 1833 which can come under domestic response wherein more than $800,000 enslaved africans as well as the small amount of canada,  it came to be on august 28 1833 and was ratified on august 1in 1834, there were many reasons, the main aim of the act was to dismiss the large scale plantation of slavery that existed in britain at the time, but because of the act canada became a free territory for enslaved american blacks, this shows that the legal response is not always ineffective but majority of the time it can be effective, there are various international responses for example the UN, the ILO and the NGOS and these organisations contribute in combating slavery and human trafficking. The global initiative to fight human trafficking and they ain to increase awareness to those who do not know of such details, they also assist in ways such as the NGOS wherein non state campaigns can encourage awareness. The ILO also plays a significant role they voice their concerns against forced labour, in 2001 a special action programme was established by the ILO which was made in attempt of raising global awareness in forced labour including, human trafficking, bonded labour, rural servitude, and forced domestic work. the effectiveness of legal responses in the protection of human rights majority of the time is effective, for example chee mei wong a malaysian women was convicted of recruiting six women from malaysia for the purpose of working for her in breach of their visa requirements, the six women entered australia under the conditions that Ms Wong had arranged for them,, Ms Wong took advantage of the six women who knew could not speak english whatsoever and did not allow for the women to leave without permission and were made to work up to 20 hours a day, while using threats and force ms wong forced the women to drink medication to prevent them from menstruating and were forced to perform sexual acts, parade around against their will and were identified by numbers, when trialed ms wong pleaded not guilty to seven charges although the jury found her guilty on all charges.on july 2013 ms Wong was sentenced to six years imprisonment with non- parole period of three years. In the article ”North shore madam jailed for forcing women into sexual servitude” ”One woman told of how her parents died when she was young, forcing her to quit school at 12 and start working.” ”Another woman carried the burden of her family’s debts after the death of her older brother.” these are examples of domestic labour because in the case of these women they all had been through some life changing moments in their lives and Ms Wong had taken advantage of their pain, this also evaluates the effectiveness of the protection of human rights because the legal system had put in place where the punishments were due. The effectiveness of the legal and non legal responses depends on the situation that the court is placed in for example the cases above have been cases wherein the court has no choice but to make the decisions based of the strong evidence against the individuals involved, for example the queen v tang case the evidences were too strong to have been ignored,although the effectiveness of the legal system is not always effective in the punishments but majority of the time the legal response is effective in the responses they make in protecting human rights, the punishments have always been strong, in conclusion the legal response is effective in protecting human rights because there has never been a time when the legal system has not made a decision that will benefit the victims in cases which need the protection of human rights, in the libya case the non legal response is not as effective because there is not much that has been done, wherein the legal responses in the queen v tang and chee mei wong case have been very much effective in the punishments that put in place. The UN, the ILO and the NGOS have all played a significant role in encouraging all countries to be able to bring awareness for such situations worldwide. In conclusion human rights is very much effective in terms of human trafficking and slavery, human rights organisations do all that they can to provide a safe and healthy environment for everyone, everyone is treated equally and if there have ever been a time when the human rights was not effective, it would have been changed to a suitable decision that will be good for everyone whether it be worldwide or in the states. The NGOS, ILOs and the UN have proved to be very vital in the way that they provide help in all kinds of different situations, and this has proven to have a played a significant role in the way that human rights are protected in today’s modern world, these organisations have all played a significant role in the way that the world operates today.

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