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Top management role is very
important from where they initially decided such a project like implementing an
ERP system. The management has to consider and emphasize the critical and
important factors that suit their business nature and process. And what falls
under each factor from efforts and resources.  


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User Training and Education: Users training and education is
an important factor in the successful ERP implementation as many projects fail
in the end due to lack of proper training. Education and training should be a
priority from the beginning of the project, and money and time should be spent
on various forms of education and training. It makes the user comfortable with
the system and increases the expertise and knowledge level of the people. All
employees must be educated in how the ERP will help the business fulfill its
potential. This includes understanding what the ERP is, how the ERP functions
and how to use it correctly. Lack of such knowledge will complicate any technical
facility the employees have with using the ERP. They must also receive
individualized training based on their roles in the company.

Change Management: change management refers to the
managerial strategies and established a team to help to overcome employees
resistance to the operational changes resulting from implementation of ERP
system. Many  ERP implementations fail because top management did not
estimate the efforts involved in change management. Such implementations will
cause lots of changes in the business’s system and  process. A change
management team will deal with these changes or impacts. The change management
team will set some approaches to help the business to control or moderate those
changes. They will create communication mechanisms such as a website,
newsletters, road shows, lunch and learns, moderate those, and develop good
communication between the project team and the organization as a whole. They
also will let key users involved with the project and its progress, this will
aid in acceptance of the changes. Also, they will be prepared to train during
the project and after the post go-live date.

1.         Top
/ Senior Management : senior management and middle-level managers must be
involved in the project from its inception to its completion.This involves
providing the needed people for the implementation and giving an appropriate
amount of time to get the job done Managers should legitimize new goals and
objectives. A shared vision of the organization and the role of the new system
and structures should be communicated to employees. New organizational
structures, roles, and responsibilities should be established and approved. Policies
should be set by top management to establish new systems in the company. In
times of conflict, managers should mediate between parties. This gives the
project the proper visibility across the organization and shows the staff the
importance of the project.The company’s managers need to understand how the ERP
will help the business meet its goals. They also need to support the core team
during implementation. Management must communicate to the employees that the
ERP will help them do their jobs but isn’t replacing the workforce. When
employees feel secure about their jobs, it will be easier for them to pledge
their commitment and support to the project. Otherwise, when the management
lack of this involvement to ERP project. That will result in a delay in decision
making,  missing deadlines,  lost sight of the big picture sight, and
lack of teamwork.

In our opinion, the three most
important critical success factor for implementing ERP system are top/senior
management, user training and education, and change management. We are going to
explain why each factor is important among the rest factors.

First of all, we found that ERP
implementation defined as when the system delivered the measurable benefits
intended, the implementation was within the budget, and the implementation was
completed on time. And some has categorized those factors into three stages;
pre-implementation stage, in the implementation stage, and post-implementation
stage. Factors such as clear goals and objectives, organizational culture and
organizational IT, and process requirement needs should be considered in the
pre-implementation stage. Other factors such as change management, top
management commitment and support, project management, stakeholders
participation, and technological infrastructure are critical for in
implementation stage. User training and education is the most critical factor
that should be considered in the post-implementation stage.  

On the other hand, from our
further researching, we explored the most important or critical success factors
that enhance the implementation of ERP system for an industry from those
addressed by the author.

Eventually, understanding these
factors is critical for the progression of the field in both academia and
practice. Therefore, providing a strong foundation of CSFs for further research
in ERP implementation is very essential. All these eight aspects are important
to be aware of and managed in order to ensure the success of ERP initiatives in
developing countries.

A questionnaire was designed to
collect primary data of CSF which influence ERP implementation success.
Descriptive and factors analysis was conducted using SPSS. the analysis from
during the descriptive statistics ( Mean, standard deviation ) and factor
analysis of critical success factors for ERP implementation success was found
that the most factors have been accepted. But the most important success
factors were project management, technological infrastructure, and commitment and
support of top management.

The author mentions the definition of the
critical success factor of ERP which they are those conditions that must be met
in order for the implementation process to occur successfully.  He also
determined eight critical success factors for ERP implementation in the high
education sector at Iraq. These are commitment and support of top management,
project management, user training and education, business plan and vision,
technological infrastructure, stakeholders participation change management, and

  The author
mentioned the importance of ERP system implementation in universities and how
it integrates different administrative function into more systematic and cost-effective
approach. He said, ” the integration of administrative function in the
universities spans the integration of students administration, human resource
management, and financial system that have in the past been supported by
separate legacy system”. This will result in further benefits such as improving
information access for planning and managing the institution, improving
services for faculty, students and employees,  decreasing business risk,
and increasing income and reducing expenses due to improving efficiency.

From reviewing the Critical
Success Factor for Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation Success article
we found out the following:

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