With the economic development of Sri Lanka, management of waste becoming the serious problem. Waste management is one of the main function for all local authorities in Sri Lanka. Because according legislation on solid waste management in Sri Lanka local authorities extensively responsible accomplishment of solid waste management (ARRPET, 2004)
There are several institutions and organizations under the policies, which are association to the waste management in Sri Lanka. Such as, (Sanjaya Bandara, Ministry of Environment)
· Municipal Council Ordinance – Laws under, No. 16 of 1947 – Section 129,130,131
· Urban Council Ordinance – Laws under, No 61 of 1939 – Section 118, 119, 120
· Pradeshiya Sabha – Act No: 15 of 1987, Section 93, 94, 95.
· National Environmental Act (NEA) – Amendment to the national environmental (Protection and Quality) regulations No.01 of 1990. According to section 33 of NEA the waste is defined as; “includes any matter prescribed to be waste and any matter, whether liquid, solid, gaseous, or radioactive, which is discharged, emitted, or deposited in the environment in such volume, constituency or manner as to cause an alteration of the environment.” (NEA)
The Central Environmental Authority (CEA) was established in 1981under the NEA act No.47 of 1980 whose powers, duties and functions regarding protection, management and augmentation of the environmental regulations. The CEA would not only exert and control quality of environment but abate pollution and other environment related activity (ARRPET, 2004)
· Basel convention
· Rota dam convention
· In May 2000 Sri Lankan government was introduced the National Strategy for Solid Waste Management (NSSWM) to manage solid waste from production to disposal, and acknow the strategies for prevention of waste, recycling and re-use, reducing and final disposal (Periyathamby et al., 2004)
According to study of UNEP (Vidanaarachchi et al., 2006) emphasize that the total Sri Lankan municipal waste generation around 6400 tons/day and Sri Lanka has 22% of urban population and estimated on production of MSW was 0.89kg/cap/day in 1999 also that research concluded that 1.0kg/cap/day of MSW will generating on 2025 and urban population will grow up to 42.6% in 2025.
There are high organic portion, moderate portion of paper and plastic and lower portion of metal and glass consist with Sri Lankan MSW. Because of the high organic content the moisture content getting higher value around 70–80% on a wet mass basis also it’s getting lower calorific value about 600– 1000 kcal/kg (de Alwis, 2000)
Figure 2.4 Comparison of organic and inorganic components of the MSW 2003 (Source: Visvanathan and Trankler., 2003 )
There are so many solid waste management projects operated by Waste Management Authority of Sri Lanka, such as;
· Large scale composting projects,
· Energy generation by waste,
· “Pilisaru” national project – large scale land filling project
· Medium scale waste management projects (Mannapperuma, 2008).
Currently variety of stakeholders including NGOs and international organizations have been engaging with SWM projects and programs in different part of the country. These projects have mainly concentrate on composting, recycling and re-use of polythene and plastic and separation of waste (Periyathamby et al., 2004). Although the situation is like that, Bandara and hettiarachchi (2010) emphasize that Sri Lankan MSWM is on scrappy mode. According to Visvanathan et al., 2005 85% of MSW were disposal as open dumping.